https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

95 Core Concepts in Ukrainian

What are the most basic, elementary, core concepts that virtually all languages express? Many linguists have put a great deal of effort into answering this question, and several short word lists have come out of it. The most famous are probably the Swadesh lists, based mostly on intuition and refined over time. Later lists like the Leipzig-Jakarta have used more stringent methods to determine which vocabulary items are most resistant to borrowing and change over time.

What I've done here is taken five such word lists (Swadesh 100, Ranked Swadesh 40, Swadesh-Yakhontov, Leipzig-Jakarta, and Woodward) and kept only the items that occur in at least two of the lists. Here is the Ukrainian version. Enjoy!

Abbreviations:
m = masculine gender ("він")
f = feminine gender ("вона")
n = neuter gender ("воно")

Nouns:
1) name = ім'я (n)
2) water = вода (f)
3) blood = кров (f)
4) fire = вогонь (m)
5) stone/rock = камінь (m)
6) dog = собака (m)
7) fish = риба (f)
8) louse/flea = воша (f), блоха (f)
9) hand/arm = рука (f)
10) eye = око (n)
11) ear = вухо (n)
12) nose = ніс (m)
13) tongue = язик (m)
14) tooth = зуб (m)
15) bone = кістка (f)
16) horn = ріг (m)
17) tail = хвіст (m)
18) egg = яйце (n)
19) leaf = лист (m)
20) night/evening = ніч (f), вечір (m)
21) star = зірка (f)
22) sun = сонце (n)
23) moon = місяць (m)
24) earth/soil = земля (f), ґрунт (m)
25) salt = сіль (f)
26) mountain = гора (f)
27) tree = дерево (n)
28) rain = дощ (m)
29) wind = вітер (m)
30) bird = птах (m)
31) flesh/meat = м’ясо (n)
32) liver = печінка (f)
33) skin/hide = шкіра (f), шкура (f)
34) knee = коліно (n)
35) breast/chest = груди (f)
36) person/human = людина (f), особа (f)
37) man = чоловік (m)
38) woman = жінка (f)
39) child = дитина (f)
40) hair/fur = волосся (n)
41) mouth = рот (m)
42) neck = шия (f)
43) foot/leg = нога (f), стопа (f)
44) feather = перо (n)
45) grease/fat = жир (m)
46) smoke = дим (m)
47) ash/soot = попіл (m)
48) sand = пісок (m)
49) wood = ліс (m)
50) root = корінь (m)
51) rope/cord = мотузка (f), шнур (m)
52) path/road = шлях (m)
53) year = рік (m)

Verbs:
54) die = вмирати
55) see/look/watch = бачити, дивитися
56) hear/listen = чути, почути, слухати
57) know = знати
58) drink = пити
59) give = давати
60) come = приходити
61) stand = стояти
62) sit/set = сидіти
63) lie/lay = лежати, лягати, покласти
64) fly = літати
65) eat = їсти
66) bite = кусати
67) burn = горіти
68) kill = вбивати
69) say = казати, сказати, говорити
70) laugh = сміятися

Adjectives:
71) new = новий
72) full = повний
73) good = гарний
74) long = довгий
75) red = червоний
76) black = чорний
77) white = білий
78) green = зелений
79) yellow = жовтий
80) small/little = маленький
81) big/large = великий
82) wide/broad = широкий
83) heavy = важкий
84) old = старий
85) dry = сухий

Other:
86) I/me = я/мене
87) you = ти, ви
88) what/which = що, який
89) who/whom = хто/кого
90) one = один
91) two = два
92) not/no = нe, ні
93) this/these = цей/ці
94) we/us = ми/нас
95) all/everything/everyone = все/всі, кожний

Please let me know if you spot any mistakes here. And if you take this list and translate it into another language, that would be awesome! I'd be sure to give you some lingots! More versions can be found here. (Be sure to check what's been translated already before posting your own.) And if you like this kind of thing, check out my website for more!

November 19, 2015

7 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/michael396266

To my knowledge Hi doesn't mean "not" it means "no" I believe the correct translation for "not" would be "He" as in я нe їm (I dont eat)

November 19, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

I believe you are correct. Have some lingots!

November 19, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/PolyglAna

Thank you for sharing! I'll definitely check out your website!

November 20, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/Vinnfred

For soil we also have ґрунт.
Лежати is rather "to lie" (the state), лягати is "lie down" (the process) and лягай(те) is "lie down" (the order).
For "foot" specifically we have "стопа"
Казати is kind of vernacular, we also have "говорити"

Nice job!

November 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

Thanks! I've updated my list.

November 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/alex_tv80

I am not Ukrainian but "і’мя" is an obvious misspelling - an apostrophe cannot be after a vowel. I think correct spelling is "ім’я"

November 23, 2015

https://www.duolingo.com/CliffJonesJr

Fixed. Thanks!

November 23, 2015
Learn Ukrainian in just 5 minutes a day. For free.