Translation:The girl is going to school even though she wants to sleep.
If the transliteration reads "Девочка идёт в школу, хотя и хочет спать," I am confused about the subject in the second clause. Does "и" substitute for (and thus translates) as "she"? Therefore might we literally translate this as the rather awkward english sentence: "She goes to school, although, wants to sleep"?
It's one of those Russian grammar quirks that make the language tough to learn if you are a non-native speaker. It is permissible to omit certain parts of the sentence under certain conditions without losing the meaning. I am not a professional linguist, but I am a native Russian speaker, so I'll try to explain it the best I can. :)
Since the subject of the sentence gets established in the first part of the sentence ("девочка"), we do not need to mention it in the second (dependent) part. You can still put the pronoun "она" in the dependent part, and it will sound perfectly normal to a Russian ear.
Девочка идёт в школу, хотя [она] и хочет спать.
It works for past and future tenses, too:
Девочка пошла в школу, хотя и хотела спать.
Девочка пойдет в школу, хотя и будет хотеть спать.
If the subject of the sentence has been previously established, then it can be absent from the sentence altogether. Let's look at the following dialog:
-- Что она делает?
-- Идёт в школу, хотя и хочет спать.
The subject "она" is established in the question. Since the following response is connected to the question, the subject can be omitted in the response. In conversational English it happens as well:
-- What is she doing?
-- Walking to school, albeit being sleepy.
I hope this helps. :)
Thank you. That makes complete. The subject is established in the sentence and implied in "хочет."
But I am still a confused by the meaning conveyed by "и" in this sentence.
If we leave "и" out:
Девочка идёт в школу, хотя хочет спать.
...it seems the sentence would still translate as follows:
"The girl is going to school, although [she] wants to sleep."
Am I wrong? Is there a subtle shift in meaning by adding the "и" that I am missing?
Nope, you're right again: the conjunction "и" can be omitted without losing the meaning. It is more of a stylistic element, an additional emphasize on the fact that the girl "is giving in" to the necessity of going to school.
This conjunction is often used in different languages to add more emphasize -- sometimes more subtle, sometimes less:
And we are starting/And off we go!
Et nous commençons!
In school (USA, olden days) we were taught that "even though" is strictly informal--idiomatic, I guess. In formal writing, we were to use "although". That's an interesting point about "even though" being more intense. Now that I think about it (and get over its forbiddenness), I get it!
I had a discussion about this with a Russian friend of mine. It was difficult yet interesting to explain the difference between "but," "yet," "however," "even though," and "although." They all have subtly different connotations.
"But" usually implies that either the previous statement doesn't matter or isn't taken into account because of the following statement ("It's cool, but I'm not interested."; "I lost my wallet but my week has been great!"), that the following statement is related in concept but negated our opposite ("I like cats, but I don't like dogs."), or that something you'd expect to be true because if the first statement isn't true ("I liked that movie, but I wouldn't recommend it to you.") . It also often implies that any intent expressed in the first statement is nullified by the second ("I would go, but I'm tired"). In general "but" can often mean almost the same thing as any of the other words and it is definitely the most versatile, but it almost always has the connotation of negation (if the previous ststement was positive, the following will be negative, or vice versa)
"Yet" (when used as a conjunction) is used to mean "despite the previous statement, the following statement is still true." It's used exclusively for opposing or unexpected concepts where one would imply the other wouldn't be true, yet it still is. It places a lot of emphasis on the fact that the following statement was true or happened, which is why it's commonly paired with the word "still." The following statement is usually surprising given the previous statement. ("My bicycle broke while I was riding to school, yet I still made it there on time!")
"However" is similar to "yet" except it often has a stronger connotation of having taken the previous statement into consideration. ("I think this will work, however we should probably test this part more.")
"Even though" is like "yet" in reverse. With "yet," the following statement is the important part of the sentence ("I am tired, yet I keep walking" is focused on the fact that you keep walking). With "even though," its the previous statement that is important ("I keep walking even though I'm tired").
"Although" or the more informal "though" is definitely the hardest to grasp. It is like "however" or "yet" with one very subtle difference: in informal writing and in speech, it is used when you thought of something after starting the sentence or at least just before starting it ("I'd like to go to the beach, although it's kind of cold right now"), or when the following statement is a follow-up to the idea in the previous statement but shouldn't necessarily overshadow it ("It's awesome that you got that pay raise, although your taxes will go up too"). In either case, it's used when the following statement might affect the integrity of the initial thought or previous statement and always has at least a subtle implication that you hadn't thought of it at the start of the statement. It's also used similarly to "however" in cases where the previous statement is important, but the following statement should be taken into consideration before coming to a conclusion, often with the implication that you haven't yet fully considered it and/or come to a conclusion. This connotation isn't exclusively in speech and informal writing, but when used in formal writing the assumption that it was an on-the-fly thought tends to be less prominent.
For the most part these words can all be used in the same or similar contexts and you'll always be understandable. They overlap in many ways, so in many contexts some of them may be completely interchangeable, but often your choice of which word to use will very slightly modify the implication of your statement, or at least change which part is being emphasized.
"Для" usually means "for":
This book is for you = Эта книга - для тебя
This money is for presents = Эти деньги - для подарков
"В" is translated as "in, to, at" depending on the context.
He is at school = Он в школе
She is going to school = Она идёт в школу
She just walked in the building = Она только что вошла в здание
There are exceptions, but the use of contractions to remove the word "is" (as in "girl is" to "girl's") are not generally accepted by Duo. There's nothing technically wrong with your sentence (it would be considered unacceptable in very formal academic writing, but there is nothing wrong in informal writing or in speech with such contractions). With Duo, I have found that it is best not to try to contract "is" or "are," and just spell them out, with the understanding in my own mind that they are okay to write elsewhere. The reason I say that, is that my understanding is that each variant sentence (not just each variant word) has to be manually input by someone.
I agree, хотеть спать is to be sleepy. (Katzner's dictionary confirms this with an example sentence, I am sleepy, я хочу спать.¹) This would fit well within the sentence and would not drastically change any meaning.
¹ Katzner, Kenneth, English-Russian Russian-English Dictionary (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994), 417.
(I cannot help but cite; sorry, I have dwelt in academia too long. : If I didn't cite, I wouldn't sleep tonight. :) )
Even if ≠ even though.
I will wash the dishes even if you are mad. This is a statement of possible conditionality; regardless of whether you're mad at me, I'll get them washed.
I will wash the dishes even though you are mad. This is a statement of fact; I know you are mad at me, and I will wash the dishes anyway.
The girl is going to school even if she wants to sleep. Possible conditionality; the girl may or may not be sleepy - we aren't sure.
The girl goes to school even though she wants to sleep. Statement of fact; the girl wants to sleep, but she is going anyway.