"Do you speak German?"
Translation:Вы говорите по-немецки?
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По-немецки (can be any language) literally means "in a German way". That's an adverb and it answers the question "how?". Как? - По-немецки. "По-" is an indicator here that it's an adverb. Adverbs end with one "и".
Немецкий is an adjective. It describes a noun, though this noun can be omitted. Немецкий язык. Он говорит на немецком языке. Он говорит на немецком. It ends with "ий" (in nominative case).
Theoretically you could use «по-герма́нски» if you mean the Proto-Germanic or Common Germanic, the common language that is the ancestor of all Germanic languages nowadays, but I doubt you’d find any speakers. :D
Also, theoretically, you could ask this if you’re looking for a speaker of any Germanic language (from Faroese to Afrikaans, doesn't matter which one), but this is likely to be expressed with «Вы говори́те на (како́м-нибудь) герма́нском языке́?».
«По неме́цкому» means something different (e.g. «оце́нка по неме́цкому» is the 'mark in the German class', «уче́бник по неме́цкому» 'a German textbook').
Hmm, I tried "Ты знаешь немецкий?", but it was rejected. Can someone tell me if that's reasonable? Elsewhere in Duolingo they seem to use "знать" more-or-less interchangeably with "говорить" to mean someone knows or can speak a language. With знать the language is in accusative case; with говорить it's usually in the по-XXX form (which I guess is an adverb).