"Whose house stands there?"
Translation:Чей это дом там стоит?
It's a particle here, it just emphasizes/intensifies the question. Another example of such particle: "же": "Чей же это дом там стоит?", or even more wondering with postfix -то: "Чей же это дом там стоит-то?" (more of a spoken language). All these things are optional and just make the speech richer and more emotional.
кого is accusative, so who/whom, not whose. E.g, who lives here vs whose house is this.
Not sure, I'm not Russian, but it's likely unnatural (if even possible) - Of whom is it the house standing there? - Even if you rearrange and refine? This is the house of who standing there? Кого - isn't 'whose'.
Чей - is masculine and in agreement with дом. это - is neuter and therefore not modifying дом.
I assume кого is used in the accusative (and genitive) Who(m) did you see? I saw him. Of whom are you speaking? I'm speaking of him. (In Russian, this is likely 'about, and not of, but the principle remains the same). Or perhaps, he is the son of who? Though, perhaps, it is still more common to say, whose son is he?
Perhaps, it could work e.g. That's the house of 'who' standing there? But from my little knowledge of Russian I feel there'd be more relative pronouns.
But if you want to use 'whose' and we are aware of the 'it', in this example, we know - the house, then I think 'Чей' is necessary. And I'd assume if the question is being asked, the reader always knows the gender of 'it' and therefore uses the correct gender to ensure agreement.