The term palatalized that linguist 1313 is used a lot in teaching Russian, but it was totally unfamiliar to me and I didn't understand it. The terms for "soft" and "hard" letters also confused me. What I found helpful was learning that in Russian, for some reason, consonants that have a "y" sound after them are considered soft. (that's "y" as in yellow, not "y" as in happy.) So most of the time when you put a ь after a consonant, it gains a "y" sound. There are exceptions, like in the name Ольга, where the ь makes the л into a tongue flap, rather than the tongue being held to the roof of the mouth. But mostly palatalized means that "y" sound, and is described as "soft".
It is important to remember that the terms "palatal" and "soft" are synonymous in Russian. ("hard" is the primary pronunciation for most consonants).
The Ч in Russian is an inherently palatal consonant. There is no corresponding "hard" sound to Ч (except in other languages like the English "tch").
K is a velar sound (as is г). In Russian you can have a "soft" or "hard" K just like most other consonants, although spelling rules might be confusing sometimes.
As for л vs ль, the first is "hard" and the second is "soft" in terms of palatalization, however you may hear many pronunciation variations due to the fact that L sounds are pretty strange in linguistics (in all languages). If you want to look more into L sounds, you will run into the terms "hard" and "soft" referring to other complicated features, so maybe it's best to train your ear to the words you use most and not worry too much (Russians will still understand you if you make a mistake).
p.s. if you are curious about pronouncing ъ in some words, it is there to tell the reader that the previous sound was "hard", when otherwise it would have been "soft" (or it's a spelling exception).
Hope this helps! palatalization can be hard to get used to :)
Could you please tell me the difference between тёплый and горячий?
For many people it's calming and comforting and kind of sweet, and helps us fall asleep. I'm pretty sure it has that effect because it did when milk was served warm to us as babies (whther formula or breast, in a bottle or "from the source”). It's worth trying, if only to satisfy curiosity and try something new. I felt that way about chocolate coconut water (" that sounds disgusting!") But eventually tried it ("there must be some reason it's so popular") and now it's one of my all-time favorites :-).
There's no "н" in "горячее" (or "горячий" for that matter).
It's not irregular. It's in the grammatical neuter gender form, becase "молоко" is neuter and the adjective has to agree with the noun. "Горячий" is masculine (for ex. "горячий чай" - "hot tea" ), feminine form is "горячая" (for ex. "горячая вода" - "hot water").
Wiktionary does: I recommend it a lot. It also includes the full declension tables.