"Я знаю два иностранных языка - итальянский и французский."
Translation:I know two foreign languages - Italian and French.
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If you scroll down to "Plurals with numbers" there's an explanation of which case to use with which numbers when counting objects: http://www.russianlessons.net/lessons/lesson11_main.php
With 5, the genitive plural case is used and if you look at the declension table at the link mosfet07 provided, you will see that иностранных is in this case.
mightypotatoe, I'm afraid this link will not help.
Russian has an over-complicated declension system for numerals, but we also have an adjective here.
The analysis for this sentence:
"Я знаю" takes the accusative case (I know what?):
- "Я знаю" (what?) "two foreign languages"
The structure of this sentence is:
- pronoun + verb + cardinal number + adjective + noun
The noun ("язык") is masculine inanimate
Nouns become the genitive singular after the numbers end with 2,3,4 (see Tips and notes in the Time and Numbers skill: https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Time-and-Numbers):
- nominative: один (nom.sg.) язык (nom.sg.) (1)
- nominative: два (nom.) языка (gen.sg.) (2,3,4)
- nominative: пять (nom.) языков (gen.pl.) (5,...)
Masculine nouns use an adjective in the genitive plural with numbers >1:
- nominative: один (nom.sg.) иностранный (nom.sg.) язык (nom.sg.) (1)
- nominative: два (nom.) иностранных (gen.pl.) языка (gen.sg) (2,3,4)
- nominative: пять (nom.) иностранных (gen.pl.) языков (gen.pl) (5,...)
accusative = genitive for masculine animate nouns, numbers and adjectives
accusative = nominative for masculine inanimate nouns, numbers and adjectives:
- accusative: (Я знаю) два иностранных языка
Almost. There is an exception for feminine nouns: if the last word of the numeral is "два", "три" or "четыре", and the nominative plural form of the noun is identical to the genitive singular form, use the nominative plural form of the adjective in the nominative case:
- две бе́лые ко́шки (ко́шки = ко́шки)
- две бе́лых козы́ (ко́зы != козы́).
But this exception can be less strict in some situations.
Check my article for the full explanation: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/12185422
According to the author of Русская корпусная грамматика (rusgram.ru), in the 19th century, the nominative plural form of adjectives was commonly used instead of the genitive plural between два, три, четыре and a noun of masculine or neuter gender (e.g. it was OK to say два главные подъезда or три незнакомые лица). However, this usage became rare over time - it was established that in 1850 the structure was 6 times as frequent as in 1920. Nowadays it sounds incorrect to most native speakers. In 1981 I lost a point for writing something like три белых берёзы in my essay (белых was counted as a mistake by a university professor of Russian language and literature). These days it is considered by some linguists as an acceptable variety.
The rule illustrated with кошки and козы is some thing I have never seen before, although I am a native Russian speaker and philologist at that. Some linguists, e.g. D. Sichinava, the author of Корпусная грамматика (rusgram.ru), claim that, in modern Russian, the nom. pl. and gen. pl. forms of adjectives in phrases such as две белые кошки are interchangeable. That doesn't sound right to me; intuitively, I find your rule more plausible. Will you please refer to the source?
This is really interesting. I suppose it's something in natural variation - some use one, some use the other. I would be really curious to see a corpus study on it that assesses the construction over time - ie, are speakers moving from gen pl to nom pl or vice versa? (Any variation theory linguists looking for a paper topic?)
The best link on this subject I've seen is this one: http://nekin.info/math/imya_chislitelnoye.htm (in Russian)
His conclusions are confirmed by common sense, that's enough for me :)
See "2. Конструкция «числительное + прилагательное + существительное» в именительном падеже", the last paragraph there.
Another source is Розенталь: http://www.evartist.narod.ru/text1/65.htm See §193.2
Like I said, this is not a strict rule, though.
The former, which is called "hyphen" in English and дефис or чёрточка in Russian, is not a punctuation mark and is only used in hyphenated words like пол-яблока (half of an apple) or чёрно-белый (black and white). The latter, which is called "dash" in Engish and тире (pronounced тирэ) in Russian, is a punctuation mark that has lots of uses. One use is introducing the authors words after a quote, another one is conneting clauses in a complex sentence where there's no conjuction. A third one is equivalent to the present forms of the verb 'to be': "This is a / These are" = "Это — ". The problem is that the Russian keyboard doesn't have a button for тире, so in typing it is often replaced with a дефис and nobody cares that it is incorrect.
тире? Lol, it sounds exactly like tiret in french and it is the same thing! :D
Yeah I understand. "One use is introducing the authors words after a quote, another one is conneting clauses in a complex sentence where there's no conjuction." I think in french, we use the tiret only when the author wants to give his opinion or point of view on a scene and for lists. To separate two clauses, we use this ";" (a coma with a longer break between the sentences)*. Is it used in russian and english?
*« En province, les femmes dont peut s’éprendre un homme sont rares : une belle jeune fille riche, il ne l’obtiendrait pas dans un pays où tout est calcul ; une belle fille pauvre, il lui est interdit de l’aimer ; ce serait comme disent les provinciaux, marier la faim et la soif ; enfin une solitude monacale est dangereuse au jeune âge. »
"В Японии все говорят на японском, а английский почти не знают."
«Translation: In Japan, everyone speaks Japanese and hardly anyone speaks English»
Not everywhere, Duolingo accepts «знаю = know»
I tried several combinations of "knows" in the last part of this sentence, but it only accepts when you put "speaks"
In the sentence «Я знаю английский», “английский” is short for английский язык (English language). По-английски is an adverb which roughly means “the way they do it in England”. The verbs говорить, читать and писать cannot take the name of any language as a direct object: a special adverb starting with по- is used instead. The confusion comes from the fact that knowing a language implies being able to speak it. However, speak and know are not even close to being synonyms.
First, it is not a hyphen, but a dash that is used here (hyphens are only used within one word). Second, a colon in a Russian sentence is used differently. It can replace the conjunctions / linking words потому что (“because”), что (“that”), а именно (“namely”) and например (“for example”) in connecting two clauses. It is also used after reporting verbs before a quote. In the latter case English requires a comma. Within a simple sentence, a colon is put after a generic term before the list of examples; however, in that case, a dash is also acceptable. In the given Russian sentence, either is OK.
You got it right. Adjectives following numbers are put in the genitive plural unless the following noun is feminine gender — then the adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in number and case. Cf: Я прочитал две интересные книги; Я увидел двух красивых женщин; В доме было три больших окна.