"Мне надо нарезать картошку для супа."
Translation:I need to slice potatoes for the soup.
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This is complicated, because in Russian, some foods are always regarded as singular (mass nouns) and others are treated as usual nouns and decline as either singular or plural. We unfortunately just have to memorize which is which. In the case of картошка, it always declines like a singular noun, whether you are talking about one or more than one potato. Consequently, I believe "potato" should be accepted as an answer as well as potatoes, since we do not know from the question whether the the cook will cut one potato or more than one.
Below is an elaboration with examples of food nouns used differently from a website. The final example below is like картошка:
In Russian, we use some fruit and vegetable names as mass nouns and don't form plural for them:
Салат с луком / капустой / клубникой while the others do form plural:
Салат с огурцами / кабачками / артишоками / помидорами Also, if you ask someone:
Что у тебя в сумке? then the answer:
У меня в сумке огурец / кабачок / баклажан / артишок would unequivocally mean there's exactly one vegetable in the bag, while this answer:
У меня в сумке лук / капуста / клубника may mean any quantity.
Unindentified quantity of potatoes is always singular in Russian, however if there is a statement of how many potatoes - use plular. Я режу картошку (one or many - treat as singular). Я режу три картошки ( as plural). As native speaker i never realizes how weird it is.
You are right. Most of "food nouns" in russian are mass nouns, like картошка/ картофель ("картофелина" is a singular noun), морковка ("carrot". this one also a normal noun, but used as a mass one), лук (onion) ("луковица" is a singular noun, if you talk about underground part of the onion. "The green" part is a mass noun)