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Not true, I hear people say "I'm not understanding" or "I'm not understanding you" all the time. Is it "grammatically correct"? Who knows. Language isn't a concrete thing, which makes semantics like trying to grasp air.
Brazilian Portuguese uses a lot of verbs progressively - many more than in English because of the limitations of stative verbs.
Here's Dan's explanation of the imperfeito.
01-15-2017 "Eu não estou entendendo." Translation: "I do not understand."
https://www.duolingo.com/comment/8225379 - This is the discussion of this question in the English for Portuguese speakers. But the official correct answer over there right now is "I do not understand." Translation: "Eu não entendo." - with both English and Portuguese in present tense.
From the discussion, it sounds like it was once in present progressive in both English and Portuguese but got changed to present. Does that mean that "Eu não entendo" sounds more natural than "Eu não estou entendendo" in Portuguese? Or did they change it to avoid confusion?
The sentence discussion shows only one of the possible answers.
The sentence "I don't understand" has two best answers listed: "Eu não entendo" and "Eu não estou entendendo".
Both are equally good and natural in Portuguese, being the second very focused on "now" and "trying at this moment".
Formerly, this sentence here: "Eu não estou entendendo" had a bad English translation (I am not understanding). Now it's been corrected to the closest natural English possible: "I do not understand".
Well, it could be used in English, more likely in the positive, but would be very rare indeed. However, as I understand it, the Portuguese form here would not be used in Portugal either, though the use of estar and the gerund is more common in Brazilian Portuguese to describe the simple present.
If you write I'm not getting this without context, it could mean many different things. It is also arguable that one would say (wait,) I don't get it/this rather than using the gerund.