I got a few questions about Dutch
-Why is the plural of 'decennium' 'decennia'? Is that just because history influenced it? And so would 'datum' be 'data'?
-I've got a pretty good understanding of the prepositions in Dutch, there's just a few that I need to clarify: Voor (to(as in time)/for?), aan/in (what means what), over (under/past), bij (??). I can't think of anymore prepositions that I'm struggling with so if someone could just tell me the meanings of all of the main ones (in, at, to, for, by, etc.) that'd be really helpful.
-What does 'tot' mean? There was no explanation for it and I just got one sentence (Tot vanavond!)
-I'll probably have more questions but really all I need help with is the prepositions and all their meanings
Dank u wel!
Decennium = Latin, words that come from latin often also use the latin plural. Museum - Musea, Datum - Data etc.
Prepositions can be tricky as they can mean different things and might be translated different in other languages depending on context. For what their definitions might be have a look on www.vandale.nl.
Tot has several meanings: http://www.vandale.nl/opzoeken?pattern=tot&lang=ne. In your example, literally "Tot vanavond" = "Until tonight", which is a way to say "see you tonight".
'Datums' as a plural of 'datum' is used more frequently: http://taaladvies.net/taal/advies/vraag/190/datums_data/
As said in your source in some cases a lot of people use "datums" instead of "data", but "data" is also good. The same with "museums" vs. "musea", which both are correct: http://www.vandale.nl/opzoeken?pattern=museumlang=nn#.VlWortKrSt8. Which is used more frequently is very personal.
However the question was not "what is the correct plural of datum", but "why decennia the plural of decennium" and would the plural of "datum" be "data", which is a valid plural.
On a related matter: "decennium" and "decennia" (http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/decennium?q=decennia) can also be used in English.
Also is there a good way to memorize masculine and feminine nouns? Example: Schrijver en Schrijfster, Secretaris en Secretaresse, etc.
Those are Latin from origin. The plural form officially also is, but some have gained altered plural forms. Like datum (=date), the plural datums (=dates) (otherwise data) is also accepted nowadays. Also forums (fora), laboratoriums (=laboratories) etc...
"Tot" means to. Something going to a certain point. E.g. Ik rijd tot het kruispunt. (I drive to the crossing). Or, Tot morgen! (See you tomorrow).
"-I've got a pretty good understanding of the prepositions in Dutch, there's just a few that I need to clarify: Voor (to(as in time)/for?), aan/in (what means what), over (under/past), bij (??). I can't think of anymore prepositions that I'm struggling with so if someone could just tell me the meanings of all of the main ones (in, at, to, for, by, etc.) that'd be really helpful. "
That's a lot! I'll give it a try... Voor = in front of (location\position), but also for (a person), but also in a "give way" situation on the road or in a shop; Die auto persoon gaat voor. (That car\person goes first) aan = on. Like switching on the light, or putting some clothes on. But also like touching something\one (hij zit er aan, hij zit aan mij = he is touching it me) in = in or inside. over = over it\something * onder = under, beneath. But also passed. Het is over, voorbij. (It's over, gone, passed).