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Both are correct, you can use either. With most countries, you can only use «в». However, with Ukraine, both work.
It's a bit political:
- «В Украине» is the newer variant; all the countries are used with «в», and Ukraine is a country, so it's used with «в». People who like the fact Ukraine is an independent state tend to use this form more.
- «На Украине» is the older variant, which appeared back when Ukraine wasn't an independent state. People who don't like the fact Ukraine is an independent state tend to use this form more.
However, it doesn't mean that this form always reflects political views. Usually, people just speak the way they are used to speak. So, in the long run, it doesn't really matter which form you choose.
In Polish it's all about history. We say: na Ukrainie, na Słowacji, na Białorusi, na Litwie (Lithuania). But - w Czechach, w Niemczech (Germany), w Rosji. The first ones were the names of geographical regions so we say "na". The latter were political organisms so we say "w".
No. The usage of «на Украине» predates Soviet Union. Also, Poland and Romania weren’t Soviet States.
Sorry, I haven't been in History class for a long time. Thanks for the tip though!
Since Romanian is not a slavic language, we don't use в/за. We use "în" for all contries and "la" for cities. It's a bit like in/at in English. Some people in southern Romania or in Transilvania may say "la Moldova" when talking about both the region in Romania or the neighboring country with the same name. Similar to the way Russians, Poles or Czechs talk about past regions in the same state.
An article explaining the article: http://amp.timeinc.net/time/12597/the-ukraine-or-ukraine