"damage" and "damages" are not particularly used as "singular" and "plural".
first, "damage (to something)" means harm caused to something... even when "a lot of harm" is caused to the thing, "damage" is still used... for example, "he has brain damage" (singular); "the vandals did a lot of damage to the car" (plural); and "please let me pay for the damage" (singualr and plural)...
second, "damages"... this refers to "money paid or claimed as compensation" for loss, injury, or "damage" (as described/defined above)... for example, he sued the company and won £5000 (in) damages...
summarily, from the above example ("please let me pay for the damage" (singular and plural)...), whatever the individual pays for the "damage" is referred to as "damages"...
hope this helps... :)
see the "oxford advanced learner's dictionary" for more help...
I don't know that this particularly answer the question. "I have asked for the damages(2)" is a legitimate sentence indicating that someone has asked for the amount of compensation. If that is not a valid interpretation for Italian, that's possible, and I don't know if that's the case or not.
It's a non sequitur, though, because he seems to be asking why can he not use past perfect instead of simple past, which I think is an error in Duolingo, and should be reported.
I'm American English, damages and the damages have different meanings and I assume they would also translate differently I'm Italian.
Saying I asked for damages simply means you asked for compensation for some form of harm, but it's still not certain you will get damages.
Asking for the damages refers to a specific compensation package that (presumably) has already been awarded. Examples: I asked for damages but the jury denied them to me. I asked for the damages to be paid in full by the end of the month. If we win the case, the damages will represent the largest settlement in history.
"I asked for damages" - I'm not sure what this means. If the person is asking how much he should pay, I would say, "I asked for the damages." If the person is asking what happened in terms of damage to something, I would say, "I asked about the damages." I guess in my brand of American English I need the article, "the".
See above. It’s a legal term meaning compensation for injuries or damage suffered - “as part of the case, the plaintif asked for damages;” or “if the client renegs on the contract, we shall ask for damages as follows...”
I think it’s an esoteric term for Duo to include. They might as well include “indemnify” or “lien,” or some such rarified term.
The near past (passato prossimo) is expressed in Italian by the present tense of the verb avere + the past participle of the main verb. Using the past participle of "chiedere" (chiesto) by itself is wrong in this context.
IMHO "I asked for damages" (past simple) and "I have asked for damages" (present perfect) are both correct translations.