Is there a typo in these spelling rules?
The following spelling rules are written in Animals 1. They don't make sense to me. Is there a typo?
"There are some restrictions on which consonants are used with which vowels when making word forms. Here are the rules for ы, а, у vs. и, я, ю:<pre>
use only И after к, г, х/ ж, ш, щ, ч use only А, У after к, г, х/ ж, ш, щ, ч and ц"</pre>
These rules govern which vowel you use when you have to make a form of a word you know.
- is it И or Ы?
- is it А or Я?
- is it У or Ю?
Usually, a stem ending in a non-palatalized consonant gives you a normal vowel (стол→столы, луна → луны), whereas if you have a palatalized consonant there, it gives you a iotated/palatalized vowel (портфель→портфели, земля→земли).
Still, that does not work for ALL palatalized and non-palatalized consonants.
Historically, softened velar consonants Г, К, Х (those pronounced at the back of your mouth) turned into hushes eventually. Then a new set of ги, ки, хи was produced from their "hard" versions, so in modern language гы, кы, хы are nowhere to be seen, even though a native speaker can pronounce them (they are found at word boundaries and foreign words)
Russian hushes (Ш, Ж, Ч, Щ), which, may I remind you, had formed from palatalized velars, were all palatalized. Then Ш and Ж became "hard". Huses do not have palatalized/non-palatalized variants, so, in theory, it does not matter which vowel of the pair you use after them. In practice, there is a spelling convention that you use и, а and у after them (unless it is a stem of a foreign word that is somehow traditionally spelt against these conventions)..
No, I believe it is not a typo. Take a look at this site: