Translation:The minister discussed this problem with the president.
Obviously, they're not talking about the minister in a church here...
But I do have a question. In some countries (like Russia) they have a Prime Minister and a President. In other countries, they do not.
Would a Министр also be similar to an advisor or a cabinet position in the US, like the Secretary of State or the Secretary of the Treasury? Trying to figure out if we have something similar to that here in the US.
Yes. Heads of departments in the administrations of Russia's provinces are also called министры. But ministers in a church are not. Those would be проповедники/пасторы/протестантские священники (the last term is regarded by some clericals as incorrect).
Political terms are difficult to understand properly without studying a country and its form of government. On the federal level, Russian Ministers are very much like American Secretaries. But you must be careful with such comparisons, because some names can be misleading and what is included in a particular department or ministry may differ significantly.
The American Secretary of the Interior and a Russian Minister of Internal Affairs are quite different. The Russian Minister of Internal Affairs is more similar to the American Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. I also note that there is basically nothing in Russia like American state and city police; at every level in Russia, it is an appropriate part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - MVD (Министерство внутренных дел - МВД).
You can look it up in Wikipedia, there is sufficient info about that, go to the English article and then open the Russian one.