Translation:The professor is finishing the lecture.
Преподава́тель(ница) is a more formal word, it's usually used for teaches in the higher education institutions. Учи́тель(ница) is usually used for school teachers.
The exact boundaries are blurry, both преподава́тель(ница) and учи́тель(ница) can be used as a generic terms sometimes, to mean any person who teaches. When used generically, преподава́тель sounds more formal, while учи́тель(ница) sounds more poetic. Учи́тель(ница) is used for respected teachers (for example, the words "Master said"/子曰 from the Analects are often translated as «Учитель говорил»).
I think the word 'lecturer' is closest to ле́ктор. Ле́ктор someone who gives a lecture (which might include a student, if they were given such an assignment). The word ле́ктор has no generally-accepted feminine form (like преподава́тельница or учи́тельница) in standard Russian, so you use the masculine form to refer both to male and female lecturers.
But can you give a лекция in a school? In British English, a session of teaching in a school is a lesson or class, never a lecture.
And someone who teaches in a university is never called teacher as their profession. The title of the role is lecturer. (Normally someone becomes a professor by being awarded the "Chair of Modern Languages" (for example) at a particular university, which means becoming the head of department for that subject at that university, although it is possible for an eminent academic to be awarded a "personal Chair", whereby they get the professorship without the administrative role.)
They might be referred to as a teacher only in the second sense that you mentioned: Dr. Smith is a great teacher - but this is not describing his or her role, just their function. My mother was a great teacher can be equally well be said in this sense (when my mother was not a professional, just an exceptionally wise or knowledgeable person).
The structure of job titles in British academia derives from the medieval university's origin as a branch of the church. The three levels of academic post: Reader, Lecturer and Professor, mirror the Church's hierarchy of deacon, priest and bishop. The names refer to their roles in the mediaeval university, where the professor created doctrine, the lecturer expounded it, and the reader imparted the information to students by reading from the written text. They should not be taken as literal descriptions of the activities of academics in modern universities.
It is probably worth mentioning that, as a result of this, it used to be usual to talk of reading for a degree rather than studying for a degree. That is less common nowadays, but it may help to be aware that an British person who says I read Divinity at Edinburgh is likely to be naming their course of study at university rather than describing their book collection!
i used 'instructor,' since this is a general term (at least in the US), for someone teaching at a university -- but duolingo said it was wrong, giving 'teacher' instead. As others have said, we don't use 'teacher' for someone teaching at a university. And teachers rarely give lectures.<pre>
To the question asked above (and for which there is no reply option): A terminal degree includes PhDs, MFAs, MEngs, MDs and other degrees that qualify one as a professional. Sometimes it is used as the highest attainable degree (e.g., a doctorate in many fields in the US or a habilitation in Germany).</pre>
In the U.S. we also have non-tenured research faculty and staff. "Research Associate" would probably refer to that role. "Terminal degree" is just a slightly broader term for Ph.D.-like degrees, i.e. it explicitly includes D.M.A. (music schools) Ed.D. (education), etc. So I don't think UK "Research Associate" would be a good equivalent to a U.S. lecturer. Someone working on research while still in a U.S. doctoral program is a "Research Assistant" (they would rarely teach, a doctoral student who teaches is a "Teaching Assistant" (more commonly "TA"), even if they are the only instructor for a course, I think.). I didn't mean anything official with "university level teacher," just "someone who teaches." The non=use of "teacher" for university faculty is perhaps the one thing the U.K. and U.S. nomenclature systems do seem to have in common!
I can't speak to "лекция," and its nuances on the necessary level. But a university class session in the U.S. is very commonly termed a "lecture". Hence, winsome_losesome's (I suspect subtly misguided, but well taken) suggestion below. Something like "In lecture this week, we covered supply curves, and then in discussion, we saw some examples using them." ("discussion" here is "discussion section," an ancillary meeting time for a college course normally led by a TA; "lecture" is the overall class meeting, led by the professor/lecturer, which may have many more students, there being a number of TAs and discussion sections for a single lecture).
Thank you. I think it would be useful to somewhere lay out these terminology patterns - and their corresponding terms in other languages. When there are such marked differences in meaning between different countries that use the same language, it renders translation difficult!
We don't use "terminal degree" because we use doctorate to refer to any degree with "doctor" in the title. Honorary doctorates (i.e. those awarded without a formal course of study, such as D.Litt. etc. also follow this pattern). Note that a medical degree in Britain is an undergraduate degree (actually a double bachelorate - either M.B.Ch.B. or M.B.B.S. (depending on the university) i.e. Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery or Chirurgery). Most medical doctors use "doctor" as a form of address as a courtesy title. M.D. is a higher degree taken by some researchers in the field of medicine.
When I had teaching responsibilities as a postgraduate student (we don't, in normal speech, distinguish students aiming at a Ph.D. from other research students, because completing the requirements for an M.Phil. is the normal way of spending the first year of postgraduate research), my job title was Demonstrator - even though my role was to examine and assess undergraduate practical work, providing advice as necessary, but not formally demonstrating anything! But I believe this title can vary between faculties and institutions, I am not aware of a set form.
The usual term for a session of teaching in a university is a lecture. It basically consists of the lecturer expounding on a topic, although it is possible to raise questions, or challenge what has been said.
A class in a university is a much rarer term, and usually implies a teaching session in a practical subject, such as languages or the sciences, which involve significant student activity.
I think the nearest analogy to your "discussion section" is the tutorial. This is a weekly meeting with the academic tutor, in a very small group environment, which gives the opportunity to discuss material covered in lectures that week. But you only have one tutor for each strand of your degree, not separately for each course that you take. And it is also the tutor who sets and marks essays or problem sheets, so typically much of a tutorial is spent discussing these. Typically, they will also recommend further reading for your courses. I have not heard of anyone other than a lecturer acting as a tutor. (You also have a personal tutor who remains constant throughout your degree and acts as a mentor.)
I am hoping that someone who reads this will outline the Russian system, and terminology, for us...
Well, being a native Russian, I'll give it a try, challenging as the task may seem. In Russian an institution of higher education is called вуз (=высшее учебное заведение), which can be called институт, университет, академия, консерватория, высшая школа or высшее училище. The generic term for a person who teaches there is преподаватель. In very formal situations, this word can apply to a secondary school teacher (the phrase школьный преподаватель is then used), but the word учитель is used most of the time for a primary or secondary school teacher. The phrase "вузовский преподаватель" describes any kind of lecturer or university professor. The terms ассистент, доцент and профессор more or less match the US terms assistant professor, associate professor and full professoricial. If someone works in a вуз as a researcher and teaches occasionally, that person is called "научный сотрудник". The word "факультет" matches the US term "department" (faculty in British English) and the Russian equivalent of "faculty" in the US sense is "преподавательский состав" or simply "преподаватели". Thus, in some situations, "преподаватель" can be translated into American English as "the faculty member". There is no word in Russian for tenure, as the concept doesn't exist in the Russian education system. The closest thing we have is "постоянная работа преподавателя". A lecturer without tenure is close the Russian concept of "почасовик" - the word refers to a lecturer who is paid by the hour (по часам - "академический час" = 45 minutes) and does much less teaching than a professor. A Russian профессор usually has a doctorate degree (учёную степень доктора наук). In the Russian academic world there is also учёная степень кандидата наук (the degree of candidate to doctors), which, historically was the first postgraduate degree. As far back as in the 20th century the disctinction bachelor's - master's degree didn't exist in Russia. Most institutes of higher education offered a 5-year course (in case of medicine - a 7-year course) and once a student had completed it, he or she became молодой специалист с дипломом о высшем образовании (a holder of a diploma of higher education). A post-graduate course is called аспирантура and and a student aiming at a PhD is called аспирант. These days we have бакалавреат and магистратура (bachelors and masters are called бакалавры and магистры, respectively), but we also have кандидаты наук and доктора наук, both of which correspond to PhD holders. To become a доктор, a candidate usually has to guide several postgraduate students (аспиранты) in writing their theses (кандидатские диссертации) related to the subject of his/her doctorate thesis (докторская диссертация). The word "доктор" is never used in any form of address, the first name and patronymic being commonly used as the formal form of address. Tutorials or discussion classes are called семинары (the word семинар can also be translated as "seminar" or "workshop"). I understand that my explanation is very brief, but I hope that it helps the learners of Russian to understand the basic concepts of our higher education.
Училище can be a vocational or trade school (профессионально-техническое училище, or ПТУ - an well-known acronym of the Soviet era). Реальное училище is a vocational school that exitsted in the tsarist Russia between 1872 and 1917 and specialized in engineering and science. Театральное училище is a modern institute of higher education where people study to become actors, art directors, playwrights or theatrical artists. Военное училище is a military school or academy of a university level. The graduates are comissioned officers. Педагогическое училище or педучилище trains primary school teachers at the udergraduate level. Медицинское училище (aka медучилище) trains nurses at the undergraduate level. Музыкальное училище is a special institute of secondary education that trains teachers for музыкальные школы (elementary music schools). Консерватория is an institute of higher education which trains musicians to perform in symphony orchestras, as well as opera singers, conductors, composers and musicologists. Институт has two meanings: (1) a research center/institute, and (2) a college in the US sense, i.e. an institute of higher education specializing in subjects related to a certain industry or field, e.g. педагогический институт (teacher training institute), медицинский институт (higher school of medicine), авиационный институт (an institute training engineers for aircraft building industry), политехнический институт (a polytechnic school) etc. The word институт was widely used in the Soviet era to refer to institutes of tertiary education. In 1990s most institutes changed their names and were promoted to the rank of университет or академия. As a result, the concepts of a university and academy were devalued. We ended up with nonsense terms such as медицинский университет (a university of medicine) or аэрокосмический университет (an air space university.. Some institutes of higher education in modern Russia are called высшая школа (e.g. Высшая школа экономики in Moscow). As for the word академия, in the USSR, it was mainly used for Академия наук СССР (currently, Российская академия наук - РАН, Russia's Academy of Science), Академия медицинских наук СССР and Академия художеств (the Academy of Fine Arts). Only the latter was an institute of higher education. These days we have hundreds of академия's which are often dubious quality institutes of higher education, although they claim to be a little better than universities. On the secondary education level we also used to have техникум (most техникум's changed their names for колледж in 1990's), which is a special secondary school combimed with a vocational school. Teхникум could be used as an intermediate stage before entering a university. Russian secondary schools are, for the most part, combined with primary/elementary schools and share the same building. Students aged 7 to 17 go to the same school building for 11 years and study in the same group of 20 to 30 people called a class. During years 5 to 11 they have classes 6 days a week. After finishing their 9th year of school they can opt to go to some vocational school.
Heck - it's getting even worse (more different) than I thought.
We don't have your category of "professional doctorates"; all the categories listed would here normally have bachelor's degrees. License to independently practice is conveyed by Chartered status (a postgraduate and often postdoctorate qualification obtained by a varying mixture of examination, published research and supervised professional practice) and/or election to various Royal Colleges or Institutes ("election" meaning that having two sponsors, themselves Members, who are able to vouch for the standard of your work). Chartered status and memberships also generate letters to suffix to your name... MEng, MPhys, MChem etc. are undergraduate (first) degrees - they are awarded at Master's level because they last for four years rather than the usual three. (In Scotland it is usual to leave school at 17 rather than 18, hence Scottish undergraduate degrees normally last four years, not three, and the normal first degree in Scotland is a Master's.)
Furthermore, a doctorate is not required for tenure. It is more usual of course, but someone who has qualified via the professional route then turned to academia later in life, may be appointed to a lectureship (they retain the title "Mr." etc.)
I have some understanding regarding the French and German systems, but we really need someone who can explain the Russian system and terminology to us!
The first three paragraphs here do a better job explaining what the deal with "terminal degree" is than I could. As it says, in academia, it's probably really about MFA's, who may well be tenured faculty but without doctorates, a situation pretty much unique to them.
I share your hope :)
Thank you Dmitry_Arch: that was an excellent introduction to the Russian higher education system! You mentioned different instutions of higher education - is the choice of name arbitrary, or do they refer to different fields of study?
Could you please add some information on what constitutes the "licence to practice" qualification for those who are taking the professional route, rather than an academic career?
Wikipedia has a discussion of this at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_ranks_in_Russia . It includes "In Russia, as of 2016, the scientific ranks of a Docent (Associate Professor) and a Professor (Full Professor) are conferred. Detailed information on the ranks can be obtained – in Russian – on the website of the Higher Attestation Commission which is responsible for conferment in the most cases."
The problem here is the difference in the way academia is structured in "Anglo-Saxon" countries and "Roman" countries. The post of lecturer scarcely seems to exist in Roman countries, one is immediately a professor, perhaps assistant or adjunct or some other form. In Anglo-Saxon countries a lecturer is definitely not a student but is a recognised member of staff. It is a first step to becoming a professor.
A "lecturer" in the U.S. is, indeed, a faculty member of a university. It is a teaching position, not on the tenure-track, but usually held by people with terminal degrees. The tenure-track ranks go assistant professor->associate professor->(full) professor. All styled "professor" in common parlance (the only case where plain "professor" unambiguously means "full professor" is on an academic's CV).
I understand the U.K. sense of "lecturer" to be quite different, perhaps roughly equivalent to "associate professor." I do not know which version of lecturer would be a "вузовский преподаватель." Nor do I well understand which ranks of the Russian professoriate might be referred to as "преподаватель." Inasmuch as I associate it with "university level teacher," I think of it as meaning "lecturer" (or, less commonly, "instructor" a similar title) as opposed to "professor," since knowing something of U.S. academia, I think of a professor as a researcher who just happens to teach once in a while (and some don't even do that).
See my comment for a description of the British career track. We do not have assistant or associate professors, so your correspondence seems accurate. And, as with your "professor", our "lecturer" is extended in common parlance to be the general term. It sounds as if your "lecturer" might equate to our "Research Associate". Research associates may give lecture courses, but are not tenured, and usually combine the post with working towards a doctorate. What is a "terminal degree"? Does it mean one below a doctorate?
And I concur; given that the British and American terminology is so different, I am left confused as to what the Russian terms correspond...
I'm not sure if this makes sense, but in some words it seems like there are almost two stressed syllables. Is it possible that the syllable before the stressed syllable might be lengthened or something? On words with more than three syllables, I tend to hear the accent on the syllable before the accented one; for example I always hear хоро́шо although I know it is хорошо́.
I don't know why you hear it like this, but the syllable before the stressed syllable is indeed pronounced more carefully than most other syllables of the word. However, it stressed syllable should be pronounced even more carefully (at least theoretically), so I'm not sure why you hear it they way you hear it. ^^'
If that's true, then I guess it makes sense since in English we just have one syllable we pronounce carefully (Spanish pronounces all syllables carefully). I think I probably just heard the first careful syllable and assumed it's the accented one. This is actually very useful to know, thank you.
I'm not sure that this is particularly interesting, but I would like to add to the topic of "teaching", I mean about "преподавателях", "преподавательницах" и "учительницах". In the music schools of Russia (at least in the last half of the twentieth century) in "Трудовая Книжка" ("Employment Record Folio" - a mandatory document at the time) for teachers of all disciplines there was written "преподаватель по классу ... ", completely regardless of gender or qualification ... never ever ... "преподавательница" or "учительница" ...
The professor has been telling some new information to the students (and students are not expected to actively participate, just listen and maybe take notes), and the professor will finish telling it soon.
Yes, it's really spelt this way. Since the second syllable in зака́нчивает is stressed, it's pronounced as written, so зако́нчивает would be pronounced with [o].
It's really derived from коне́ц, but it was derived long ago. Long long ago, Slavic O was a short variant of vowel, and Slavic A was a long variant of the same vowel. Sometimes in derived words, the vowel was lengthened, and this gave rise to А—О alteration in modern Russian.
In modern Russian, most words with this alteration are the words that were created long ago. However, there's still one pattern when the А—О alteration is still alive, and it's the formation of imperfective verbs from perfective verbs:
- зако́нчить 'to finish (successfully, one time)' → зака́нчивать 'to be finishing',
- устро́ить 'to arrange (successfully, one time)' → устра́ивать 'to be arraning',
- заморо́зить 'to freeze (successfully, one time)' → замора́живать 'to be freezing'.
This pattern is still productive, and can be used for creating new words (although variants without the alteration are also possible):
- зафотошо́пить '(slang) to photoshop away (successfully, one time)' → зафотошо́пливать or зафотоша́пливать '(slang) to be photoshopping away',
- задепло́ить '(slang) to deploy (software, successfully, one time)' → задепло́ивать or задепла́ивать '(slang) to be deploying'.
There is a joke about the word просро́чить 'exceed time limit'. It's derived from срок 'term, deadline'. If you form an imperfective verb from it using this pattern, it becomes просра́чивать and it looks as if it's derived from an impolite word, and this impolite word is used metaphorically to describe problems. Since going over the deadline usually means problems, it sounds funnily appropriate. However, in formal settings, просро́чивать (without the O—A alteration) is preferred instead of просра́чивать.
They collocate differently. We say окончить/оканчивать школу/колледж/университет, otherwise закончить/заканчивать is preferred for "to finish" (e.g. закончил книгу, закончил ответ, закончил телефонный разговор) whereas окончить/оканчивать sounds dated or literary (as in Писатель окончил свой труд в 1870 году = The writer finished his work in 1870). The verbs кончить/кончать are also used for "to finish" in "кончить работу/дело" (there's a proverb "Кончил дело - гуляй смело") and when the infinitive of another verb follows ("Она кончила говорить"). However, one should be careful using кончить/кончать without an object as in modern Russian it refers to having an orgasm. Note that adding -ива/ыва suffix in imperfective verbs always requires changing the root vowel from 'o' to 'a'.
Your explanation is very good, but I’d like to add a little bit of nit-picking:
Note that adding -ива/ыва suffix in imperfective verbs always requires changing the root vowel from 'o' to 'a'.
Not really always, just often. This change didn’t happen in some verbs yet (узаконивать, урезонивать, отфутболивать), and in some verbs this vowel change is optional (огорошивать ~ огорашивать, обусловливать ~ обуславливать). The vowel change can be blocked by desire to retain an onomatopoeia (поцокивать) or taboo avoidance (просрочивать).