Lesen isn't exactly an exception because du's -st assimilates into the stem whenever it ends in -s or something else that would run together like liesst would. So it is part of a rule, the orthography just changes to match the pronunciation.
machen (to make, regular verb)
lesen (to read, slightly irregular strong verb)
Some verbs change their vowel in the du and er, sie, es forms -- this is simply something that has to be learned.
For example, lesen has du liest, geben has du gibst, and sehen has du siehst.
It doesn't depend on the shape of the word -- for example, leben has du lebst, not du libst.
So it's just something to remember for any given word.
I imagine that there are historical reasons for these changes, but from the point of view of today's language, those verbs are simply irregular.
So I thought "lest," "liest," and "lesen," were kinda similar as to how "esst," "isst," and "essen" work?
So how do the plural/singular, first/second/third person work for someone reading compared to someone eating?
- ich lese
- du liest
- er, sie, es liest
- wir lesen
- ihr lest
- sie lesen; Sie lesen
- ich esse
- du isst
- er, sie, es isst
- wir essen
- ihr esst
- sie essen; Sie essen
The core word is 'lesen', actually. What you missed is the 'strong verb' here. Those are verbs which change the core vowel in conjunctions. Hence it's ich lese, du liest, er/sie/es liest, wir lesen, ihr lest, sie lesen in present. In the past term, the core changes to 'las'.
No, you're mixing up two verbs.
There is legen (to lay) which is ich lege, du legst and there is liegen (to lie) which is ich liege, du liegst.
Neither of those verbs changes the vowel in the du and er forms compared to the other forms.
And with lesen, the -ie- is only in those two forms; there is no *wir liesen, for example.
Usually the second person singular is "trunk of the infinitive" (trink for trinken, les for lesen) plus st. But "lesen" has already the s. And you can't put a second s there, because that would make the vowel a short one. The more, there are strong and weak verbs. Weak ones don't change the vowel of the trunk, strong ones do. Lesen is strong, trinken is weak. We also distinguish between regular and irregular verbs, but that's another story. Yeah, German is complicated. (And to avoid complete frustration I won't even mention that some verbs are both regular and irregular, weak and strong or mixed.)
O my god. I wouldn't have thought of that. Can't remember ever having it heard. Maybe read in old books. In normal speech everyone would take the past perfect, as we are quite sloppy in distinguishing simple past, present past and past perfect or just find another way to express the circumstances. "Du ließt das Rauchen"? No way anyone would say that. We would say: "Du hast mit dem Rauchen aufgehört." And maybe also because ließt and liest is pronounced exactly the same.
So far I understood it is only one verb "lesen". Actually, the conjugation "lest" is used for "You" in the plural (i. e. Ihr). I think for English native users is a little more difficult because in many cases you can use the same word for both singular and plural. But you will get used to it. The "lesen" conjugation in the Present Tense is:
du liest; er liest; es liest; sie liest are all grammatically correct. (Not: "true". We don't know whether anyone is actually reading, so we can't talk about truth of the statement.)
But since das Mädchen is grammatically neuter, you would refer back to it with the neuter es, while you would use the feminine sie to refer back to the grammatically feminine die Katze.
Was macht das Mädchen? Es liest. Was macht die Katze? Sie liest.
Is there any way to find difference in sentence if the sentence is in present tense or present continuous . Like he reads and he is reading. Would there be any difference in German translation
No, not in standard German.
Sometimes, there is a time expression which requires a particular English case (e.g. "every day" --> present simple, "right now" --> present continuous), but without such a time expression, both tenses are usually reasonable translations.
How do I know when it's Du liest, you read or Du liest, you are reading
Without context (as in single sentences on Duolingo), it could often be either -- and so both translations should be accepted.
If there is a time expression, then that may tell you that only one tense is appropriate.
For example, Du liest jeden Tag ein Buch. can only be "You
read a book every day" and Du liest gerade ein Buch. can only be "You
are reading a book right now."
I don't know, either. Do you have a screenshot that shows that answer being rejected? Please upload it to a website (e.g. imgur) and tell us the URL.
First, though, check that you had a translation exercise and not a listening exercise ("type what you hear", i.e. write in German what the voice says in German).
"Picking" actually is a correct translation for "lesen", albeit an old-fashioned one. I guess Duolingo isn't accepting it here because these are very basic lessons that don't deal with such words like that. This is why it only accepts the much more common sense of the word, which is "reading". The hint for "picking" shouldn't be in the dictionary, though, that's quite confusing.
Because I just stumbled over it: "Lies doch mal deine Klamotten auf!" (Pick up your clothes!) is not uncommon in Germany. (The joke went: "Du liest doch so gerne, oder?" (You love to read, don't you?) "Ja, ich studiere Literatur." (Yes, I study literature.) "Dann lies doch mal deine Klamotten auf."
Some verbs change -e- to -i- or -ie- in the du and er, sie, es forms; this is one of them.
So we say du liest and er liest.
Two other common verbs that do this are geben "to give" and essen "to eat": we say du gibst and er gibt, du isst and er isst.
But the ihr form has the regular vowel -e-: ihr lest; ihr gebt; ihr esst.
No, "you reads" is not a correct translation of "du liest".
"You read" and "you are reading" are the possible translations.
"Du lesen" is not correct, either, since "lesen" is either the infinitive or the form used for "wir" (we) or "sie" (they) or "Sie" (formal you) but not for "du" (informal you for one person).
It just is.
Some verbs in German change the vowel in the du and the er, sie, es forms, from e to i or ie, or from a to ä or au to äu.
For example: essen: er isst; lesen: er liest; fangen: er fängt; laufen: er läuft.
Just something you have to learn. It's not really predictable; for example, kaufen has er kauft and not er käuft.
Only a little bit.
The vowel change from -e- to -ie- is a bit of an exception but is shared with some other verbs, e.g. sehen: du siehst).
The simplification of -s-st to -s-t is regular -- lesen: du liest; essen: du isst; lassen: du lässt; rasen: du rast etc. We don't write du liesst, du issst, du lässst, du rasst etc., and so for verbs whose stem ends in -s -ß -x -z, the du and the er, sie, es forms will look the same.
That's not correct. You might as well say that "I=we" in English.
du is when you speak to one person.
ihr is when you speak to several people at once.
They're not interchangeable.
When you speak to one person, you say du liest.
When you speak to several people, you say ihr lest.
You can never say du lest or ihr liest -- just as you can't say "I are reading" or "we am reading".
Does your native language make no difference between the verb forms for "you (one person)" and "you (several people)"?
Why is it liest not lest?
Some German verbs change their vowel in the du and the er/sie/es forms:
- from e to i
- from e to ie
- from a to ä
- from au to äu
This is unpredictable and you simply have to learn which verbs do this. (For example, leben has er lebt without change but the nearly identical-looking verb geben has er gibt with a change.)
lesen is one of these verbs and it changes the e to ie in the du and er/sie/es forms: ich l
ese, du l
iest, er/sie/es l
iest, wir l
esen, ihr l
est, sie l
(Since this change applies only do the two forms for du and er/sie/es, this means that for such verbs, the er/sie/es and ihr forms will be different: both add a -t but only one of them changes the vowel. er liest, ihr lest.)
Some verbs change their vowel in the du and er/sie/es forms, from e to i or ie, from a to ä, or from au to äu.
Which verbs do this has to be learned -- it can't be predicted.
Some common verbs that do this are lesen, geben, sehen, which have du liest, du gibst, du siehst, respectively.
So you not only have to add the -st ending but also change the vowel for the du form for such verbs.
Whats the difference between Du and Ihr? Dont they both me "you"?
English lost the singular "thou" and started using the plural "you" indiscriminately, whether talking to one person or to several people.
German still distinguishes between du (you = one person) and ihr (you = several people).
Mixing them up would be like mixing up "I" and "we", or "she" and "they".
Why is liest the same word for both du and er/sie?
Because the stem les- of lesen ends in an -s.
After s ß z x (all /s/-like sounds), the -st ending for du is simplified to -t.
Thus we have du liest, du heißt, du tanzt, du boxt and not du liesst, du heißst, du tanzst, du boxst.
And in such verbs, the du and the er/sie/sie forms will be the same.
Why "you reads" is wrong answer?
Because "you reads" is not correct English.
Aji-san: this course is for teaching German to English speakers.
Knowing when to say "read" and when to say "reads" in English is not something this course is set up to teach; if you still have difficulties with this, I strongly recommend that you take an English course first. This is something very basic, and if you have not mastered it yet, trying to learn German through English will be very difficult.
Both sentences are perfectly fine translations of du liest.
Which one you would choose depends on the context (are we talking about something that's happening right now, or something that occurs habitually or repeatedly?).
In the absense of context, both are equally valid.
If the stem of a verb (without the -en ending of the infinitive) ends in a "s" sound (spelled s ss ß z x), then the du form, which usually ends in -st, just has a -t.
Thus lesen, with the stem les-, has the same form for du liest (you [one person]·read, you are reading) and er liest (he reads, he is reading).
ihr lest (you [several people] read, you are reading) looks different, because verbs that change their vowel only do so in the du and er, sie, es forms. Thus ihr lest has the same -e- as the base form lesen.
There seems to be a technical issue
Please provide more detail:
- Show us a screenshot of what you are referring to: upload it to a website somewhere (e.g. imgur) and tell us the URL
- What on the screenshot went wrong?
- Why is it wrong?
- What would you have expected instead?
I find that "Ihr" and "er, sie, es" share the same verb spelling as in "trinkt". How come they don't share in lesen and esse? Example: Ihr trinkt, same verb spelling in sie/er/es trinkt but Ihr esst, different verb spelling in sie/es/er isst. Instead it is du isst sharing the same with sie/es/er isst
Some verbs change their vowel (from e to i or ie, from a to ä, or from au to äu).
Those that do so, do so only in the du and er/sie/es forms.
For those verbs, er/sie/es and ihr will have different forms, since er/sie/es will have the changed vowel while ihr will have the original vowel.
For example, kaufen (buy) has er kauft and ihr kauft while laufen (run) has er läuft but ihr lauft.
Similarly, leben (live) has er lebt and ihr lebt while geben (give) has er gibt but ihr gebt.
Which verbs do this is unpredictable -- just something you have to memorise.
lesen and essen are two such verbs.
I just missed an "e" !
And so you produced a completely different word.
List (guile) and liest (read, reads, are reading, is reading) are completely different words.
Using the wrong one is a mistake.
Just like reading "You road the book" instead of "you read the book" would be completely wrong, because roads are for driving and not something you do with books.
Is du lese same as du liest?
No. du liest is correct. du lese is not correct.
du takes verb forms ending in -st.
The verb ending -e is for ich, e.g. ich lese.
And leist is from a completely different verb (it's the command form of leisten "afford, achieve").
Pay careful attention to ei versus ie in German words!