So if I'm not mistaken... Я is nominitive because I am the subject. хочу is conjugated for first person singular present tense. And чашку is in the accusitive because it is what is being wanted. Plus, it ends in У because it's nominitive, Чашка is feminine.
I'm just not sure if чая is in the dative or genitive since it's place in the sentence refers to чашку. (I'm happy with a response at any time) )))
Чая is Genitive. Чаю is Dative. Genitive is the right choice.
"Genitive case is used to show that something (somebody) belongs or refers to something (somebody)..." The tea "belongs to" the cup.
"Dative case designates that something is given or addressed to the person (object)."
Dative doesn't make any sense here.
Чаю can be dative, but in this case it’s the alternative genitive form.
Some nouns have a second genitive form, also called partitive. It has limited usage: it’s only used when referring to a part of something (e.g. «чашка чаю» ‘a cup of tea’, but not «*вкус чаю» ‘taste of tea’). It looks like dative.
Most words either don’t have this form or sound colloquial with this form.
You haven't heart real Russian tongue twisters yet. ;)
Here's the longest tongue twister composed of all the popular (and some not-so-popular) Russian tongue twisters: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPNI04aA9KE
One of the most popular tongue twisters is «Шла Са́ша по шоссе́ и соса́ла су́шку» 'Sasha was walking along the highway and sucked on a biscuit'. Here you can hear it pronounced: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=htivUW3zHgY (closer to the end the guy re-phrased it as «Шла Алекса́ндра по автомагистра́ли и употребля́ла хлебобу́лочное изде́лие» 'Alexandra was walking along the road artery and consuming a bakery product').
In the real life, if I want to ask for some tea, I'd say something like Можно мне чаю? (Can I have some tea) or just Чай, пожалуйста (Tea, please). Saying Я хочу (I want) when ordering a drink is indeed awkward. Also, mentioning that you want tea in a cup feels a bit odd :)
No. «Ча́шка ча́я» only refers to a cupful of tea, it never refers to a cup made for drinking tea.
A 'tea cup' is the default kind of cups in Russian, so we have no special way to refer to them.
A 'coffee cup' is «кофе́йная ча́шка». Following this model, you could say «ча́йная ча́шка», so 'I want a tea cup' would be «Я хочу́ ча́йную ча́шку». However, it sounds extremely unnatural. If I were to hear this, my first reaction would be: "What? Are there cups made specifically to drink tea? Doesn't any cup work?'
Well, you could say «я хочу́ ча́шки чая», but it's not something we usually say. Because 'чашка' is the quantity of tea, but 'ча́шки' doesn't specify the quantity (since we don't know how many cups you want exactly!).
To make the sentence somewhat more natural, try adding a number of cups. E.g. 'a couple of cups', «я хочу́ па́ру ча́шек ча́я» (but after 'couple', you have to use genitive).
Well, you're right, but the exact reason is a bit more complicated. «Мест-» also ends in 2 consonants, but genitive is «мест» without a fill vowel.
This is related to the history of the language. In the past, Russian had extra-short vowels ъ and ь (you can think of them as ĕ and ŏ). They mostly disappeared except when the next vowel also disappeared.
So, «чашка» was «чашька» (čašĕka), and in it extra-short ĕ just disappeared. But «чашек» was «чашькъ» (čašĕkŏ), ĕ was followed by disappeared ъ, so ь became е.
«Место», on the other hand, never had an extra-short vowel: «мѣсто» (mėsto). So in genitive plural, «мѣстъ» (mėstŏ), ŏ disappeared, but didn't trigger any change in the stem: «мест».
So, this is because of language history, not just because the stem ends in 2 vowels.