Interesting question, I analyzed some examples that came to mind, think we use есть, иметь (have, to have) only when it in opposite to нет, не иметь (do not have), in other cases У кого-то, чего-то replacing есть, for example:
He can drive (take) us, he has a car - Он может отвезти нас, у него есть машина. (as opposed to us, we don't have)
He is a real hunter, he even has a rifle - Он настоящий охотник, у него даже есть ружье (в отличие от нас)
Вам надо пройти два квартала, там есть отель (and here is no hotel)
in other cases we do not use есть
У меня две собаки - I have two dogs. (in phrases like: У вас кот? А у меня две собаки.)
У моей жены красная машина - My wife has a red car.
Maybe there are other cases, so here is professional article http://forum.wordreference.com/threads/the-unusual-use-of-%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D1%8C-in-modern-russian.2380374/
They are synonyms but I would stick to the phrase "большой опыт" as "много опыта" is a lottttt less common (hardly ever used, in fact). We do, however, use the adjective многоопытный (having a lot of esperience) to add sarcasm. Other, less formal ways of saying, "She has a lot of experience" are "Она давно живёт на свете" and "Она многое повидала на своём веку"
True, unless the word 'experience' is modified with an adjective in which case the word опыт often proves to be the wrong choice, "событие [в чьей-то жизни]" or "испытание" being the more preferable options. Sometimes it's best to omit the noun in translation and use the short neuter adjective form alone, e.g. "It was an exciting experience" = Это было очень интересно, "It was a tough experience" = Это было нелегко, "It was a tough experience for her" = Ей пришлось нелегко. The thing is that if you modify опыт with an adjective, the word tends to be interpreted as having its other meaning which is 'experiment'.
о́пыт [opət] m (-а)
"1.experience, practice (usual procedure etc.)
eg "phrо́пыт рабо́ты work experience о́пыты на живо́тных experiments on animals со́бственный о́пыт autopsy (own experience) внете́лесный о́пыт out-of-body experience приобрести́ о́пыт gain experience (каса́ющийся) о́пыта (form.) experiential" (https://www.dict.com/russian-english/Опыт)
много does always take genitive but you can use it with genitive singular.
A lot of water = много воды: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/12804317
A lot of bread =много хлеба: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/12404054https://www.duolingo.com/comment/12404054
The и ending is used to mark the genitive case in singular nouns whose nominative singular forms end in -ка, -га, -ха, -жа, -ша, -ща, -ча or -я. In feminine nouns whose nominative singular ends in -ь and neuter nouns in -мя, the и ending is not only used for the genitive singular, but also for the dative and prepositional singular forms (in the case of -мя, the final -я is historically part of the root and -мя is replaced with -мен before all endings - e.g. имя - имени, именем etc.) . И is also used instead of е in the dative singular forms of nouns whose nominative singular ends in -ия, and in the prepositional singular forms of nouns whose nominative singular ends in -ия or -ие or unstressed -ий.
ns. о́пыт m., I assume 1st declension since it ends in a hard consonant.
Is gs. stressed as Опыта́ or as о́пыта? (My PONS cheatsheet says that the former is the rule, but Wiktionary and dict.com provide the latter for this word, without indicating that it's an exception). Why does the stress move?
The gen sg form is óпыта. The word has a prefix (the prefix is о-, пыт being the root — the related words include пытаться, попытка, испытание) and prefixed nouns hardly ever experience the shift of stress within the set of their singular forms or within the set of their plural forms. Nobody knows why the stress moves in some nouns, but if you look at the stress pattern for singular forms only or plural forms only, you’ll find that the list of nouns in which the stress is shifted from the ending to the the stem or vice versa is limited to a few dozens. Muscular gender nouns in which the stress moves have no more than two syllables and, if they are monosyllabic loan words, then we will never see the movement of stress in them, except in second prepositional (=locative) case: бас (nom), бáса (gen), бáсу (dative), бáсом (instrumental), о бáсе (prepositional), but в басУ (locative).
I am not sure what your question is, but the preposition у is always followed by a noun or pronoun or a noun phrase in its genitive form. The genitive of the singular noun бабушка is бабушки. The nominative plural is the same: бабушки. The genitive plural is бабушек. Hence “Grandmother has” = «У бабушки», “Grandmothers have” = «У бабушек»; «Бабушка вяжет носки» = “Grandmother knits socks”, «Бабушки вяжут носки» = “Grandmothers knit socks”.
In a previous task in the same lesson the sentence was "This author has a lot of experience". I translated "У этого автора много опыта". My answer was not accepted. The correct answer would be "У этого автора большой опыт". I remembered that when the task above came up and I wrote "У бабушки большой опыт". My answer was not accepted. The correct answer would be "У бабушки много опыта"! Are you kidding me? KS4711