"We do not have juice."
Translation:У нас нет сока.
I read "сока" out loud as "сука". My russian girlfriend immediately reacted. Took a while before i realized my mistake
Every lesson have some tips and notes, but they are only visible in the web app.https://www.duolingo.com/skill/ru/Genitive-Case---1
Tips and notes
In Russian “I have” is expressed by «У меня (есть)» structure. The owner is in the Genitive case.
"The of-case". It is one of the most universal cases. How do you make the forms? Here is the regular pattern:
A zero ending means that the word ends in a consonant or a soft sign (which is just a way to show the final consonant is "soft"). In the Nominative singular, a Russian word can only have the following endings: а, я, о, е, ё ornothing ("zero ending").
GENITIVE OF NEGATION
If you use «нет» to say that there is "no" something or you do not have it, the object is always in Genitive:
У меня́ есть я́блоко → У меня́ нет я́блока
Здесь есть рюкза́к → Здесь нет рюкзака́.
"of" (possession): яблоко мамы = mom's apple"of" (amount): чашка чая, много чая = a cup of tea, a lot of tea
A huge number of prepositions requires this case. Yes, «у меня есть», «У неё есть» only use «меня» and «неё» because «у» wants Genitive.
For он, она and оно Genitive doubles as a non-changing possessive "his", "her", "their": его, её, их.
initial «н» is used for him/her/them with the majority of prepositions (doesn't affect possessives)
A little side note: some nouns of foreign origin are indeclinable. It means that all their forms are the same. Foreign nouns that end in о/е become like that (кофе, метро, радио, резюме), as well as all nouns that do not fit into Russian declension patterns (see above).
This includes female names that end in anything other than А or Я. A few -ь-ending names are an exception (Любовь and Biblical names like Юдифь).
So, all of the following names are automatically indeclinable: Маргарет, Мэри, Элли, Дженни, Рэйчел, Натали, Энн, Ким, Тесс, Жасмин.
I AM AWAY
Russian also uses the Genitive to state that someone is "away", "not there": Мамы сейчас нет. In English such use would correspond to "There is no mom at the moment", or even "There is no me now". We are not hard on that particular construction in the course, but it is important to know it all the same.
Added bonus: when a verb directly acts on a noun, the noun is called a direct object and is in Accusative. In Russian, only -а/-я feminine nouns have a unique form for it. Others just reuse Genitive or don't change the word at all (Nominative)
Russian uses.... let's call it "consistent" negation. It means that in negative sentences you are required to use "nothing" instead of "anything", "nowhere" instead of "somewhere" and so on. Let's meet the first of these pronouns:
У меня ничего нет. = I don't have anything. Она ничего не ест. = She doesn't eat anything.
You'll also notice that, unlike standard English, Russian has no rule against using double negatives.
You're really very annoying posting this thing in every lesson. Please, stop the clutter.
To be fair, exactly the same questions are being asked in every. single. exercise in this lesson. And I suspect the reason is that the course notes are only available on the web, not in the mobile apps.
Until Duo updates the mobile apps to make the notes available, mobile users are missing out on some very clear instruction, and honestly the only workaround is to drop these notes in the discussion threads that mobile users are resorting to anyway.
The same questions are being asked over and over again because people do not read the comments before asking. All of the questions have been extensively debated before through questions and answers from the users, with no need to copy and paste the topic notes.
есть is not always used,the lesson says about that
" Omit ”есть” if the existence of the object is obvious or not the point — very typical for describing traits (“Tom has a beautiful smile/large eyes”, “She has a very fat cat”). Also when expressing temporary states and illnesses (“She has a migraine”). "
I noticed it is quite seldom to use ecть with a negative sentence, it can be explained when you translate literally the sentence :
У нас есть нет сока -> By us exists no juice
У нас нет сока -> By us, no juice.
One can understand very well without the есть and using it is even a bit 'too much'. I guess.
наш is an adjective, наш брат our brother нас here is the object of preposition у, which is in Genitive case.
у нас брат We have a brother, lit. AT + US (Gen.) + BROTHER
So, сока is in the genitive case, and is treated as subject. Am I right ? Or is it at the nominative feminine form ?
Yes, сока is the genitive case. A side note, сок only has one gender, and it's masculine. It's nominitive form is сок. It doesn't have a nominitive feminine form, it is always masculine.
нет means no like "Yes-No" only, and не is more like "not", like "there is no juice" or "this is not my brother"
If you were saying "We have juice" then, yes, сок would be in nominitive case. But we are saying "We do not have juice" so сок becomes сока. Whenever we are indicating the lack of possession, the noun being possessed is in the genitive case.
Is it truly necessary to place the "У" in the beginning of the sentence?
No. One could say "Нет у нас сока" or "сока у нас нет". Yoda could say "сока нет у нас". But "у" should stay before "нас".