https://www.duolingo.com/ilovejs

A taste of the Filipino language - Verbs

I want to congratulate team Indonesia for entering the incubator! I would like to take the opportunity to give Duolingo users a taste of the Filipino language.

<h1>What is the Filipino language?</h1>

Filipino is the standard register of Tagalog. Like Indonesian, Filipino is an Austronesian language. As a language with 90 million L1+L2 speakers and as the fourth most spoken language in the US, I think that the Filipino language would be a good addition to Duolingo's rapidly growing collection of language courses. Spanish-speakers would be delighted as Filipino has been heavily influenced by the Spanish language.

Word order:

Filipino sentences generally follow the V-S-O word order (Verb-Subject-Object). See examples:

Filipino {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; color: #FFFFFF; background-color: #00BFFF; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} English{@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal;font-weight: bold; color: #FFFFFF; background-color: #00BFFF; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Kumakain ako ng ubas {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} I am eating grapes {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Nawala nila ang lapis{@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} They lost the pencil {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Magbabasa sila ng mga libro {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} They will read books{@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;}

  • Kumakain - verb (eating), ako - subject (direct case I), ng - object marker, ubas - object (grapes)
  • Nawala - verb (lost), nila - subject (indirect case they), ang lapis - object (the pencil)
  • Magbabasa - verb (will read), sila - subject (direct case they), mga - plural marker, libro - object (books)

Verbs:

Filipino verbs conjugate for aspect rather than tense. This essentially means that verbs are more concerned about the state of an action rather than when the action was done.

Aspect {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; color: #FFFFFF; background-color: #00BFFF; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Description{@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal;font-weight: bold; color: #FFFFFF; background-color: #00BFFF; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Uncompleted aspect {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Action started but not complete. {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Completed aspect{@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Used when the action has been completed. {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Unstarted aspect: {@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Used when the action has not been started{@style=float:left;width:50%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;}

Some verbs have a fourth aspect:

  • Recently Completed aspect: Used when the the action has just been completed before the time of speaking or before a specified time.

Verb:

Tulog - Sleep

Aspect {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; color: #FFFFFF; background-color: #00BFFF; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Filipino {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal;font-weight: bold; color: #FFFFFF; background-color: #00BFFF; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} English {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; color: #FFFFFF; background-color: #00BFFF; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Uncompleted {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Natutulog ang kabayo {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} The horse is sleeping, The horse sleeps, The horse was sleeping.{@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Completed {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Natulog (na) ang kabayo {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} The horse (has) slept.{@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Unstarted {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Matutulog ang kabayo {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} The horse is going to sleep, The horse will sleep.{@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Recently Completed {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} Katutulog lang ng kabayo {@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;} The horse has just slept, The horse had just slept.{@style=float:left;width:33%; border:1px #1caff6; border-style:solid; padding:6px; font-style:normal; white-space:nowrap;text-overflow:clip;}

Affixes:

The Filipino language uses affixes a lot and use many prefixes, suffixes, infixes, and circumfixes to change the meaning. One may create complex words from the root.

Kain - Eat

  • Kinain ko ang pagkain ni Duo - I ate Duo's food. "-in-" implies intent.
  • Nakain ko ang pagkain ni Duo - I ate Duo's food. "Na-" implies accident/not intentional.

Alis - Leave

  • Nagsisialisan ang mga tao - The people are leaving. Circumfix.

Kanta - Sing

  • Kinantahan ni Duo ang mga tao - Duo sang for the people. "-in-" infix and "-han" suffix implies that Duo is doing the action for the object.

Sinungaling - Lie (not speak the truth)

  • Nagsisipagsisinusinungalingan ang mga tao - The people are lying. Circumfix, duplication.

Inflection:

Good news for people who despise verb conjugation! Filipino verbs don't inflect for quantity or the identity of the subject. Observe:

  • Nagluto ako - I cooked
  • Nagluto ka/ikaw - You (sing.) cooked
  • Nagluto siya - She/He/They(sing.) cooked
  • Nagluto kami - We (exclusive) cooked
  • Nagluto tayo - We (inclusive) cooked
  • Nagluto [po] kayo - You ([polite])/(plural) cooked
  • Nagluto sila - They cooked

That's all, folks! I am by no means an expert on Filipino so if I made any mistakes, please let me know!

Hope you enjoyed this taste of the Filipino language!

2 years ago

12 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/AZlato88
AZlato88
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Thank you so much for this! My fiancee is Filipino but she speaks Visayan instead of Tagalog. She knows both but never really uses Tagalog. I still want to learn at least some basics since I'll probably be spending a lot of time in the Philippines.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/StrapsOption
StrapsOption
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Thanks for this! I'd really like to learn Tagalog after Maltese. I love that nagsisipagsisinusinungalingan.

Out of interest, how did you make the table?

Salamat!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/tjasonham
tjasonham
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Awesome. My parents speak to me primarily in Tagalog but I almost always respond in English so it doesn't really flow off my tongue like it should. Luckily I can take classes because there are a lot of resources in San Francisco.

I would say the greatest difference between Tagalog and English is probably the use of "focus" and "non-focus" markers, which are used to illustrate what the key detail of the sentence is. (In the 'Affixes' section of the OP.) Each clause can only have 1 focus and then the affixes on the verb (which you then conjugate) tell you how the focus relates to the sentence:

Some sentences involving 'bigay' which means 'to give'.

Binigay ko ang regalo kay Jose = I gave Jose the gift (the infix -in- tells the listener that the focus is the direct object in this sentence)

Binigyan ko ng regalo si Jose = I gave Jose a gift (-in- -an tells the listener that the focus of the sentence is the recipient of the action or the place at which or to which an action is taking place)

Bumigay ako ng regalo kay Jose = I gave Jose a gift (the infix -um- tells the listener that the focus is the subject of the sentence)

Nagpabigay ako ng regalo kay Jose = I told Jose to give someone else a gift (nagpa- tells the listener that the focus is the also subject of the sentence, but nagpa- is used when the subject is asking a "doer", in this case Jose, to perform an action described by the verb phrase)

etc etc etc

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/UneJamKuqEZi

This made me want to learn Filipino. :D

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
mizinamo
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Is "kanta" from Spanish?

If so, interesting that even foreign words can take infixes!

Would "ginugel ako" be "I googled", then?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/ernie_menidola

Yes, kanta is from Spanish 'canta' (there is no letter 'c' in Tagalog). You will find modern Tagalog speakers use a large number of Spanish-cized and English-cized words but in reality, there are many that do have real Tagalog words for. Unfortunately, people get lazy. The Tagalog word for sing is 'awit'. Yes, ginugel is googled. There is no real Tagalog word for that, lol.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Janelle330

"Ginugel ako" means "I was googled". "Ginugel ko" means "I googled".

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/12CMcCarthy

didnt even read that but got the like due to effort

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Duan
Duan
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Fascinating stuff! Thanks for sharing!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Ludwig719394
Ludwig719394
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Also there are no grammatical cases, gender nouns, and plural (that is you add 'mga' before the noun to make it plural and if you want to say a 'beautiful woman' you just add an extra -ng in the root word. Beautiful; Maganda. Ang babae ay maganda.

The woman is beautiful.

Magandang babae.

Beautiful woman.

Although the hardest part of it are the affix, suffix, infix, and circum-fix like -um-, mag-, i-, -an, -in, ipag-, ipang-, pag-, doubling the first syllables in the present and future tenses. Verb: kanta (to sing)

Kumakanta; sings

Kakanta; will sing and a bunch more; (please say if there is something wrong or if I miss something) Kinakanta, Kumanta, Kinanta, Kinakantahan, Kinanta, Nagkakantahan, Magkakantahan, Kinantahan, Makantahan, Makakakanta, Makakanta, Kakakanta, Pakanta, Pakikanta, Pagkanta, Pakakantahin, Pakantahin, Nakanta, Nakantahan, Kakantahin, Kantahan

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Louie4825

Actually you add -na, -ng, or -g to join two words. -na is for words ending in a consonant except n, -ng for vowels, and -g for the consonant n (pang-angkop). Also, the order can be reversed like: "Beautiful woman": magandang babae "Woman that is beautiful": babaeng maganda

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/MemeMcQueen116

Hmm, interesting, Filipino always interested me

4 months ago
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