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Loro VS esse / essi

What is the difference between "loro" and "essi" or "esse" (and what's the difference between the last two)

grazie! :P

December 2, 2013



The "correct" subject 3rd person pronouns would be:

  • Egli (he)
  • Ella (she)
  • Esso (masculine it)
  • Essa (feminine it)
  • Essi (masculine them)
  • Esse (feminine them)

However, in modern Italian, these pronouns have become literary or very formal and aren't commonly used in speech, in favor of lui (he), lei (she) and loro (them). "It" isn't currently associated with any pronoun, and is commonly omitted or referred to indirectly.


Since one of these forms appears in a sentence about fish, do you think that they could add this to the tips and notes?


I guess you mean 'they' instead of 'them'.


they and them are the same in Italian


In the example above he and she are subjects in English, they would be a subject too while them is a direct or an indirect object in English.

You are right that loro can be used as a subject and an object in Italian. Usually li/le (direct object) or gli (indirect object) seem to be used as objects though.


Gli, as an indirect plural object pronoun, is used in spoken Italian, where loro takes the written form.


so do lui and lei refer to masculine and feminine (respectively) "it"?


Yes. Be careful though. "Lei" can mean either she/her or the formal you. In written form "Lei" is the formal you, "lei" is she/her.


For the formal you (Lei and Loro) do the "correct" forms simply capitalize Egli, Ella, Essi and Esse? Can the masculine Egli also be formal?


No, he, she and it are not formal and are not capitalized.


essi/esse is used in literature eg writing :) Prego!!

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