"The priests are attempting to sing."
Translation:Prestene forsøker å synge.
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In certain contexts, like the example above, they are interchangeable, but prøve is an older word in Norwegian (in use in old Norse) and has heaps of meanings while forsøke is a bit younger and it's uses are narrower. Mostly you can also say prøve if you can say forsøke, but the other way around might not work.
Forsøke: try, attempt
Prøve: control, test, try, attempt, tempt, experience etc.
I really enjoyed this explanation. Thank you! Particularly interesting was how well the meanings of 'prøve' map to the meanings of 'try' in English. I'm not aware of any usage that indicates 'control', but everything else lines up.
Try: 'He tries really hard in school.' Attempt: 'She tries to win every race she enters'. Test: 'tried in a court of law', 'trial by fire' These are better matches for test than tempt, but patience and purity can be 'sorely tried'. and of course, experience: 'I want to try every flavor of ice cream they make.'