Now a government building, seat of the prime minister of Russia; until 1993 seat of the Russian parliament, famous for the 1993 coup d'etat.
While the word can be used to signify a home, I don't think it carries the same meaning. "I have a white home" sounds like you're one of those special needs children who do not live with their parents. If that is the context, of course, then by all means.
snerks If you live in a white aquarium, then you could say you live in a white home, yes.
Should both words be capitalized in Russian as they are in English when referring to the government building?
Only the first word, both for the American and Russian buildings (but for the Russian building, "Белый дом" is the unofficial name).
Is this common in Russian "official titles"?
I ask because, a couple of weeks ago, I was looking at something I'd heard in one of the Russian vids I was watching, and 'Human Resource' (the department), was always referred to with one capital letter (in the first word), and the rest all lower case letters. This seemed quite consistent throughout the yandex.ru results.
Mostly. Белый дом (The White House), Большой театр (The Bolshoi Theatre), Российская академия наук (The Russian Academy of Sciences).
But in the Russian language every rule has exceptions (Организация Объединённых Наций / United Nations), and according to Розенталь, there are 10 rules for capitalizing titles.
It isn't really an exception. In Russian, if a proper name is constructed out of multiple nouns only the first one will be capitalized (Белый дом), except if the words that make up the name aren't proper names themselves (Объединенные Нации is a proper name itself, so it gets capitalized even if in the middle of another name)
I'd say it shouldn't be. The capital letter indicates this is the name of some specific building - probably the White House in Washington or the one in Moscow. It's not just any white house.
Mr Green lived in the Green House, Mr Blue lived in the Blue House and Mr Orange lived in the Orange House. Who lived in the белый дом?