Translation:This temple was built five hundred years ago.
I thought храм could be translated as cathedral. Например, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint_Basil's_Cathedral The Russian wikipedia page won't paste into here, but I'm pretty sure many Russian cathedrals are called храмы. I didn't report it because I was absolutely sure. It was the only thing marked incorrect in my translation. Thank you.
BTW, how do you use костёл? I tend to use it for all the Roman Catholic Churches, but I think people from Russia only use it for Polish churches? Would you use костёл to describe a church in Lisbon? (I personally would.)
The usual Russian name of Saint Basil's Cathedral is Собо́р Василия Блаженного, not Храм Василия Блаженного. While собо́р is definitely a type of храм (so you can call it Храм Василия Блаженного too), I doubt it makes a good translation.
My speculation would be that Russians prefer calling orthodox churches "храмы", whilst catholic churches are usually called "соборы". And since there's no indication as to what kind of a "храм" is implied in this case, I don't see why 'cathedral' shouldn't be accepted as a viable translation.
Saint Basil may have not quite proved this point, but take Храм Христа Спасителя, for instance - its official name in English is The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour.
I'm with Alf42. 'This cathedral was built five hundred years ago' should be accepted.
According to a Russian Orthodoxy site, xрам is a place of worship. Собор is generally the main church in a town or monastery. Храм and собор come from different Old Church Slavic roots. When I have time I'll pull out my OCS materials and dictionary and look up their origins. церковь has a different architecture and is used for Catholic, Lutheran, and other churches. Это Католическая церковь и не собор.
Храм is given in brackets, with собор given as the main name:
But the example with Cathedral of Christ the Saviour is indeed compelling. Looks like it's originally «собо́рный храм» (which is the same as «собо́р») but it gets shortened to «храм» and not to «собо́р». I guess the short version of the name to be used depends on the exact cathedral in question.