There was an old Soviet era poster that said as much: "кто не работает тот не ест" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/He_who_does_not_work,_neither_shall_he_eat#/media/File:Kto-ne-rabotaet.jpg
We say the same,bit is not as harsh as the soviet one, it implies that every creature has its job to do and has to do it if they want to keep on living. A children work on their development, either by play or by studying, others work or take care of family, it's all work. Just like children should help around the house, it's their work. Essentially we all work so that we can afford food. It always annoys me on the job applications "why do you want to work here" - mate, I applied to 50 places, I need money to pay for food and shelter so I can keep myself alive.
"потому что" just means "because". A comma can be inserted between "потому" and "что" when special emphasis is placed on the cause. Other examples are; "так как" - "since, because", "благодаря тому что" - "because, thanks to the fact that", "из-за того, что" - "because, on account of" etc.
"Because of that" in English typically occurs when the cause is described before the effect. In contrast, it seems like что is connected to the upcoming clause rather than the preceding one, since in this example хочет есть is the reason он работает, so the proposition <that he wants to eat> is the "because" for his working. But the observation that he works is noticed before the reason is given, so in the sentence it comes first
No! "Потому" does not mean "why". "Почему" means "why".
"Потому" means "because" but it is rarely used by itself; the standard combination is "потому что", which is the proper Russian "because". The only example of "потому" used by itself, that comes to mind is this exchange, whereby the second person brushes the first one off:
which is the exact equivalent of English
Standing on it's own, it seems to be an adverb.
I just don't get the translation. I'd translate it this way: "He works, therefore he wants ro eat" -meaning, he's hungry because he's been working all day long.
However, in the given translation the feeling of hunger was first, followed by the action (work). Could someone explain that to me?
The problem is that you interpret "хочет есть" as "is hungry", which, as you said yourself, makes no sense here. However "хочет есть" also means "wants to eat in general", as in "he wants to keep being able to have food on his table". I.e. he works because he wants to provide for himself.