Translation:What is observed as the velocity increases?
It's difficult being asked to translate this sentence into English during a test. There are so many ways to say this in English, it's difficult to guess which one will be the "correct" one.
both speed and velocity are mentioned as possible translations, although technically speed is a scalar quantity and velocity is a vector quantity. Can скорость really translate to both, or are there specific words for either one that aren't tought here?
"Speed" is the best translation here. Скорость is used for both speed and velocity (and also rate in some contexts) in scientific Russian. Basically, you need to know the context to know which is the correct translation. There are many other examples of a term in Russian that correspond to different terms in English, for example, экспонента is used for both an exponential function and an exponent. Similarly, there are examples of a term in English that could be different terms in Russian, depending on the context; for example, type might be вид, тип или род. Then there are terms for which there is an exact translation but no immediately obvious relation: статистическая сумма is a partition function.
I rarely encounter such a strange concept as a velocity increasing. Usually, it is the norm, modulus, absolute value, or magnitude of a velocity that increases.
Скорость is the word for both. We also have words быстрота (быстрота реакции, быстрота смены событий) - sort of quickness, and быстродействие (компьютера, процессора)
увеличении is not a verb is it? Maybe something more literal would be "what is observed along with the increase of the velocity?" or something like that (I am not a native English speaker)
увеличение is a noun derived from the verb увеличить(ся). You don't have to always translate a noun as a noun and a verb as a verb. Feel free to convert parts of speech if you need to. Nouns derived from verbs are commonly used with the preposition при in Russian. Such phrases mean "as the process goes on" or "while the process is going on"
You answered my question about при. In this sentence during seems to work. Are you a ski instructir on Aspen Mt.?
I can’t imagine anyone saying, “during an increase in speed”. “What do we observe as the speed goes up?” is the most likely choice. And am not a ski instructor — just an amateur skier who has never been to Mt.Aspen (in fact, I don’t even know where it is located).
In real life I would feel free to produce a free translation. Here, I get tired of getting dinged, and having to figure out whether my translation was actually legitimate or simply wasn't coded in.
I answered "what was observed with the increase in velocity?", which is normal scientific English and much closer to the Russian. It should at least be accepted.
If you're looking for a natural-sounding English translation, I would suggest 'What can be observed as the speed increases?' or 'What can be observed with an increase in speed?'
I would probably say something like "What is observed at increased velocity?" (which I have reported).
The issue here is that the "preferred" answer is asking for agency "...as you increase the speed" when there is no agency in the Russian version. A more appropriate English translation would be "What is observed as the speed increases?" or "What is observed with an increase in speed?"
Do we really need 4 new words out of 5 in a sentence? I think it is kind of discouraging.
No it isn't. An increase IN speed or an increase OF, say, 5 miles per hour (увеличение скорости на 5 миль в час).
"Increase of speed" exists in English. For example:
"limit jerk implies linear increase of acceleration to the limit acceleration, quadratic increase of speed" (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerk_(physics)#In_motion_control)
"Increase of speed" exists in English dictionaries. For example:
"noun 1. the act of accelerating; increase of speed or velocity." (http://www.dictionary.com/browse/acceleration)
"При" may mean "in the process of", "as [something goes on]", "in the case of", "in front of (=in the presence of)", "during someone's rule", "attached to", "having", "accompanying", "assuming" or "as long as you have". The following noun/pronoun is put in the preposionsl case. "Про" is synonymous with "о/об" when the latter means "about". "Про" is less formal than "о" and is often used after the verbs думать, говорить, рассказывать and nouns such as сказка, рассказ, песня, книга. The objects of "про" are always put in the accusative form (unlike those of "о" which are put in the prepositional form when "о" means "about"). In some occasions про means "for", but this usage is dated.