Translation:I want to learn to play a musical instrument.
In Polish, the word 'muzyczny' would be used here, and 'muzykalny' is used to describe a person who has some musical talent or likes music very much. Wiktionary translates музыкальный as muzykalny, not muzyczny, I see that it is at least partially wrong. But is there maybe another word that is used in similar contexts as I mentioned?
No, it's correct English. Just awkward. Similar to "I want to learn good writing skills" as opposed to "I want to learn to write well". It's not as good a translation, though, because "playing an instrument" is a noun phrase (present participle) and "to play an instrument" is the infinitive, matching играть.
don't understand what you mean! what I say is that people would rather say " I play a music instrument" but english is not my language so I may be mistaken. apart from that maybe you should try to answer me in french-german- spanish-italian-portuguese-latin-swiss german- so that I can make stupid jokes with you. you were not funny.