"С Новым годом, друзья!"
Translation:Happy New Year, friends!
It's because Russians don't say or write the full phrase in everyday speech (or on many greeting cards). The verb they omit is поздравить (to congratulate). It is a transitive verb - the person/people you're congratulating take accusative case, and the event/occasion you're congratulating them on takes the preposition С + instrumental.
A full sentence would look like:
Я поздравляю вас с Новым годом.
But in informal situations, like with friends, family, classmates or coworkers you oftentimes will just hear С Новым годом!!
German is pretty close to being purely phonetic. The only thing i could think of in German not being spoken as written is the "silent H". For example the word "Rahmen" (Frame).
The German language goes through many reforms all the time to keep it as phoentic as possible and to keep the language up to date.
In German the biggest problem when it comes to being phonetic is the varying pronunciation of vocals in combination with single / multiple consonants. Rule: before double consonants is a short vocal (Damm) ; before a single consonant is a long vocal (Schaf) But you have so incredibly many exceptions
The full phrase is Поздравляю тебя с Новым годом (or any variation of that, if it's multiple people talking to multiple people then Поздравляем вас с Новым годом for instance). It would basically translate as "Congratulations on the New Year", but of course in English we don't congratulate people with holidays but rather wish them happy or merry holidays, which is how the translation comes out here. Because Поздравлять кого-то is a rather lengthy expression, they just chop it down to с праздником. "New Year, friends!" would be Новый год, друзья or Это Новый год, друзья.
HOW DO YOU WRITE DRUZIA IN LATIN TRANSLITERATION ? i cannot finish this lesson because everything i write is rejected by DUO!! i wrote DRUZIA = rejected / DRUSIA = rejected DRUZiya = rejected - i read the lessons in cyrilic but I don't have the cyrilic keyboard ! I don' see where my mistake is. Thanks.