You would use «ехать» for that: 'to ride a horse' would be «е́хать на коне́» or «е́хать на ло́шади».
Here is an example from "The Song of the Wise Oleg" by Pushkin (actually, from the very beginning):
Как ны́не сбира́ется ве́щий Оле́г (as-if [it's happening] now, prepares the prophetic Oleg)
Отмсти́ть неразу́мным хоза́рам, (to take-revenge-on [the] unwise Khazars)
Их сёлы и ни́вы за бу́йный на́бег (their villages and fields, [in revenge] for their violent raid)
Обрёк он меча́м и пожа́рам; (condemned he to-swords and to-fires)
С дружи́ной свое́й, в царегра́дской броне́, (with army of-his, in Constantinopolitan armour)
Князь по́ полю е́дет на ве́рном коне́. ([the] price over [the] field is-going on [his] loyal horse)
You can hear this pronounced here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAL0y85woAI
(Some words are outdated. Modern forms are: not сбира́ется but собира́ется 'prepares to, is going to', not отмсти́ть but отомсти́ть 'take revenge', not сёлы but сёла 'villages', not царегра́дский 'Constantinopolitan' but царьгра́дский... or, rather, стамбу́льский 'related to Istanbul'.)
No, the preposition "c" demands the instrumental case, which is learned later in the course and has its own unique endings/declensions. The instrumental case refers to objects or people that act as instruments. Here are some examples:
- Я ему салат с вилкой ("I am eating salad with a fork").
- Мы с им идём в парк ("I, with [by manner of] him, am going to the park").
When you use the preposition "c" in conjunction with people, those people are always in the instrumental case.
Also, and we'll learn this later, when referring to yourself in a collective ("He and I," "We and mom," "My friends and I"), you use the construction "Мы с [instrumental people]." Even if it is just you and one other person, use мы. I hope this preview helped, and good luck with the instrumental case!
If you want to say that you are eating with a fork as in you are using a fork to help you eat, then you would say Я ем вилкой. Я ем с вилкой means that you are eating and a presumably animate, talking, and eating fork is eating the meal at the same table. С + instrumental implies physical accompaniment, whereas the instrumental case by itself usually, as here, indicates the means or the instrument used to make the verb happen (ie. with the fork as a tool).
Use ты and тебя when saying "you" to someone you are intimate with - family or close friend.
Ты is in nominative case and is used when "you" is the subject of the sentence (eg "you are walking" = Ты идёшь).
Тебя is in genitive case and is used when a preposition calls for it (eg "You have a cat" = У тебя есть кошка).
Вас is the accusative case of Вы, which is used with anyone who isn't family or a friend. The accusative case is used when "you" is the object in a sentence (eg "I love you" = Я люблю вас).
For more information on the various cases of ты/вы see https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D1%82%D1%8B#Declension_3
Домой is an idiomatic adverb - it's not a noun (which is дом). It literally means "homeward". Adverbs are invariable, so you don't have to decline them.
It looks like an adjective - similar to большой, but it's not. Я иду домой literally means "I am going homewards", which is translated into good idiomatic English as "I am going home" (changing the adverb to a noun as part of the idiom).
без is pronounced as if it were spelled бэз ("bez") - there's no "ye" sound to the e. I hear this often, and wondered if there's some sort of rule which determines when you pronoune e with the "ye" sound and when you pronounce it like э (like the English short "e", as in beg).
Е, ю, я, ё are pronounced with a y before them, in other words as two sounds, in 3 cases: 1-if they fall at the begining of the word 2- if there is a vowel before them, for example: Твоё, it's pronounced tvayO. 3-if there are hard or soft symbols that come before them, for example: съезд, it's pronounced c'yezd
I don't think Russians are very strict when it comes to this. Russians will pronounce these words differently depending on how they feel comfortable with the letters since it's not a very big deal. But anyway, here is a video from a Russian guy teaching Russian on youtube, and this video is specifically about this subject: https://youtu.be/wYjjpBuFPkw
It is rather simplistic. You can say 'Каждый день я иду на работу с улыбкой' (Every day I go to work with a smile). And 'Я хожу здесь уже полчаса' (I have been walking here already for half an hour).
The translation is ambiguous. One can get home by a bus or he can drive a car. In both cases they would say 'Я еду домой (на автобусе/на машине) без тебя'.