A simple way to think about it is using an instrument or a tool. A "hammer" is "młotek" in Polish.
"to hammer a nail with a hammer."
"wbijać gwóźdź młotkiem"
"młotkiem" is the noun "hammer" in the instrumental case.
kobieta means woman. After the verb jestem [I am], it takes the instrumental case kobietą.
Slavic languages use the instrumental case after "to be" and "to become".
*EDIT: SOME Slavic languages do this.
It's not really an exception. The verb "is/are," есть (jest'), is mostly omitted in the present tense. That's why there is no need for the object to take the instrumental case. But the verb являться (jawliat'sja) is sometimes used instead, and its object does take the instrumental case.
It's not "This is a woman" versus "I am a woman." It's like this:
Ona jest kobietą. = She is a woman.
Ona to kobieta = She, it's a woman.
"I am a woman, " would be Jestem kobietą, but this cannot be used with to. You can't say in Polish or in English "I, it's a woman." This also applies to the pronoun ty. Can't use to
Do you speak any other European languages? That would make it easier to explain! I speak German so I already understand accusative, dative and genitive, (nominative is just the basic form anyway).
What these mean for words is that sometimes they change, in German the word 'the' and the adjectives change, but in Polish even the noun changes.
Take a quick look at the tables on this page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_grammar
Although I wouldn't recommend reading the whole thing as it's pretty in depth and I don't understand it all myself. ;)
To relate it to English, look at this: I (nominative) gave him (dative) a pen (accusative). I (nominative) see him (accusative)
Nominative - I/you/he/she
Accusative - me/you/him/her
Dative - me/you/him/her (again, as we have no equivalent word in English)
Genitive - Alex's
Locative - under the table/in the box
Instrumental - with a pen/with Alex
Vocative - I'm talking to you, Alex (the Alex is vocative)
Correct me if I'm wrong, guys! :P
Instrumental case is when a noun is being used as an instrument.
For example a hammer (młotek) is used to hit a nail (gwóźdź), so
the "gwóźdź" is hit "młotkiem" [with a hammer].
When it comes to the verb "to be" [być], the direct object is in the instrumental case.
For example, a woman is a "kobieta."
Kobieta idzie. A woman is walking. "Kobieta" is the subject in nominative case.
Ona jest kobietą. "Kobietą" is the direct object in instrumental case. This sentence means (hyper-literally), "She is [in the manner of being a] woman."
the other sentence is probably the one with an exception.
Normally you use instrumental case after jest/jestem/jesteś ..... Jestem kobietą, Ona jest kobietą (I am a woman, she is a woman)
but if there is "TO" in the sentence- in a function of this is, or instead of "jest", you use nominative case- To jest kobieta, Kasia to kobieta (this is a woman, Kasia is a woman)
I think it's more or less okay pronounced correctly as 'kobietą'. Anyway, it shouldn't be 'kobieto' in standard polish - although I'm pretty sure that some dialects do that, probably even more when it's the end of the sentence.
The thing about Ą, is that it's actually not nasalized A, but rather nasalized O - therefore in English it could be roughly transcribed as ou. Even if the nasalization is not that clear, it is there.
I think that would be more rare of a statement than "I am a woman." In Polish, the definite article "the" would be determined by context, so if the sentence was specifically your way, then in Polish there would be a follow-up, like "I am the woman that...[was responsible for that]." Otherwise Jestem kobietą. is more likely indefinite so it takes an indefinite article "a."
Thank you, but my question is alive. Why can't I use the word "women" to translate the word "kobieta"? The EXERCISE wants me to use only word "femine" and says me, I'm wrong. I'm speaking about english word - not about the instrumental case for word in polish. Thanks for the unswer!)
You originally asked why kobieta can't translate as "woman." It does translate. Kobieta means "woman." Now, you asked why "women" can't translate as kobieta. That's because "women" are more than one woman. And there is no word "femine" in English. Maybe you meant "female" or "feminine"?
woman = kobieta
women = kobiety. Just like,
man = mężczyzna
men = mężczyźni
Hi, I'm new to Polish and totally in love with the language and this course! Hope it won't turn into a curse (ehehe!). Anyway, I have a question, I know it's a bit dumb, but I'm curious: according to Eu range (A1, A2, B1,B2, C1, C2) which level you think you've reached with Duolingo?
I finished the Polish and Ukrainian courses on Duo. They definitely helped me understand the languages better due to vocabulary and basic grammar, but I can't say that I can speak them whatsoever. I can write them much better than I can speak them, because there is more time to think and correct oneself when writing.
Can i clarify if there is a standard suffix in each verb for each state, like lubie(i), sz for You (Lubisz), my for We (Lubimy), cie for You (Lubicie).. Etc.. Are that letters always still the same whatever the verb is? Please explain for clarification.. Kinda confused here.