If I understand (someone correct me if I'm wrong)- The Instrumental case is used to describe the manner in which something is done. So, in this case, "Jestem kobietą" means that "I do my be-ing in the manner of a woman." ...or something.
I'm an Arabic native speaker, but I know how it feels... Been waiting so long for the Russian course as well!
After Polish I'm doing Russian and hopefully then Chinese, Arabic and maybe Japanese too, if they've added the last 3 by then!
Throw in Ukrainian between Polish and Russian! :-) It's a great transition between the two
One is called nominative, other is called instrumantal
If the sentence has jest/jestem- you need instrumental.
but if the sentence has "TO jest" , or "TO"- you need nominative.
it's simple look: this is a woman - to jest kobieta I am a woman - ja jestem kobietą
A simple way to think about it is using an instrument or a tool. A "hammer" is "młotek" in Polish.
"to hammer a nail with a hammer."
"wbijać gwóźdź młotkiem"
"młotkiem" is the noun "hammer" in the instrumental case.
kobieta means woman. After the verb jestem [I am], it takes the instrumental case kobietą.
I'm with everybody else, why 'kobietą'? In German, at least, when we use 'to be' the case stays in nominative.
Slavic languages use the instrumental case after "to be" and "to become".
*EDIT: SOME Slavic languages do this.
In past too :) Ona byla żensinoj [Она была женщиной] And always if you use linking verb jawliat'sja[являться]: Ja jawliajus' mużsinoj [Я являюсь мужчиной].
Slożno byt' mużsinoj [Сложно быть мужчиной]. --Infinitive/conditional
And infinitive/conditional (сложно быть мужчиной). Present tense seems to be the exception then.
I still dont understand why kobieta and kobietą are different based on the sentence. Someone said its the difference between "this is a woman" and "I am a woman", but in both cases the word is the same??
It's not "This is a woman" versus "I am a woman." It's like this:
Ona jest kobietą. = She is a woman.
Ona to kobieta = She, it's a woman.
"I am a woman, " would be Jestem kobietą, but this cannot be used with to. You can't say in Polish or in English "I, it's a woman." This also applies to the pronoun ty. Can't use to
does this "she, it's a woman" really exist in English?
Because in Polish those sentences mean the same. Well not those (because using pronouns with "to" is weird) but Kasia to kobieta and Kasia jest kobietą are the same.
It's not a grammatical sentence. I'm trying to draw a parallel between the differences of the two, in English. Ona to kobieta is This/it is a woman, referring back to She.
If that's the case, then it's the same in English. "Kasia, that's a girl," if the person doesn't know the name. To kobieta = It's a woman. A pronoun is weird in English too.
In your example, though, "that's a girl" is more of an aside than a regular way to say "[X] is a girl."
I agree. I'm just trying to draw a parallel so the difference in Polish is understood. They're both not exactly X is Y. There is nuance.
Kasia jest kobietą, X is Y.
To kobieta, This/It is Y.
Kasia to kobieta, X-it's Y.
Direct objects after the verb być (jestem, jesteś, jest, etc.) take the instrumental case. That's all you need to know. Kobieta as the direct object is kobietą.
Do you speak any other European languages? That would make it easier to explain! I speak German so I already understand accusative, dative and genitive, (nominative is just the basic form anyway).
What these mean for words is that sometimes they change, in German the word 'the' and the adjectives change, but in Polish even the noun changes.
Take a quick look at the tables on this page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_grammar
Although I wouldn't recommend reading the whole thing as it's pretty in depth and I don't understand it all myself. ;)
To relate it to English, look at this: I (nominative) gave him (dative) a pen (accusative). I (nominative) see him (accusative)
Nominative - I/you/he/she
Accusative - me/you/him/her
Dative - me/you/him/her (again, as we have no equivalent word in English)
Genitive - Alex's
Locative - under the table/in the box
Instrumental - with a pen/with Alex
Vocative - I'm talking to you, Alex (the Alex is vocative)
Correct me if I'm wrong, guys! :P
That's a good write-up, but it doesn't make clear the instrumental case used after the verb być. Jestem mężczyzną. I am a man. Mężczyzną is in the instrumental case, but "I am 'with a man'," doesn't make sense or even translate correctly.
Instrumental case is when a noun is being used as an instrument.
For example a hammer (młotek) is used to hit a nail (gwóźdź), so
the "gwóźdź" is hit "młotkiem" [with a hammer].
When it comes to the verb "to be" [być], the direct object is in the instrumental case.
For example, a woman is a "kobieta."
Kobieta idzie. A woman is walking. "Kobieta" is the subject in nominative case.
Ona jest kobietą. "Kobietą" is the direct object in instrumental case. This sentence means (hyper-literally), "She is [in the manner of being a] woman."
Can you really say that what comes after a copula is a direct object, though, even in Polish?
OK, if you want to get grammatically technical, it's a noun complement that comes after the copular verb. I was using "direct object" as a blanket term in order to keep it simple
the other sentence is probably the one with an exception.
Normally you use instrumental case after jest/jestem/jesteś ..... Jestem kobietą, Ona jest kobietą (I am a woman, she is a woman)
but if there is "TO" in the sentence- in a function of this is, or instead of "jest", you use nominative case- To jest kobieta, Kasia to kobieta (this is a woman, Kasia is a woman)
We do not often use pronouns like ja/ty/my/wy, so if you use them, it feels important.
But is is a stylistic difference. Both sentences mean exactly the same. But we use ja jestem really rarely, we use jestem even in the most formal things
Just adding to Immery's point, the teacher could ask "Who knows what this is?/Kto wie co to jest?" and a student could answer "I know!/Ja wiem!" with the stress on the I/ja.
From what I can hear, "kobietą" is pronounced more like "kobieto." Am I right?
I think it's more or less okay pronounced correctly as 'kobietą'. Anyway, it shouldn't be 'kobieto' in standard polish - although I'm pretty sure that some dialects do that, probably even more when it's the end of the sentence.
The thing about Ą, is that it's actually not nasalized A, but rather nasalized O - therefore in English it could be roughly transcribed as ou. Even if the nasalization is not that clear, it is there.
why not "i am THE woman"? (given there are no articles, and context would make clear)
I think that would be more rare of a statement than "I am a woman." In Polish, the definite article "the" would be determined by context, so if the sentence was specifically your way, then in Polish there would be a follow-up, like "I am the woman that...[was responsible for that]." Otherwise Jestem kobietą. is more likely indefinite so it takes an indefinite article "a."
Nie uczcie się polskiego bo jest trudniejszy niż chiński. (Do not learn Polish because it is harder than the Chinese)☺
kobieta does translate as "woman," but after the verb być (jestem, jesteś, jest, etc.) kobieta declines into the instrumental case kobietą.
Thank you, but my question is alive. Why can't I use the word "women" to translate the word "kobieta"? The EXERCISE wants me to use only word "femine" and says me, I'm wrong. I'm speaking about english word - not about the instrumental case for word in polish. Thanks for the unswer!)
You originally asked why kobieta can't translate as "woman." It does translate. Kobieta means "woman." Now, you asked why "women" can't translate as kobieta. That's because "women" are more than one woman. And there is no word "femine" in English. Maybe you meant "female" or "feminine"?
woman = kobieta
women = kobiety. Just like,
man = mężczyzna
men = mężczyźni
Thanks a lot!!! I have not seen it in my short letter! It's plural. But the case has the only translation for this plural - it's "femine" (there is no way to write the word "kobiety" as "women" in the case). So it proposes one translation wich can be right. Maybe I haven't seen some enother ways... Please, chek it! And excuse me for the "original asking": my native language is Russian. Thank you in advance!
Не за что, нечего извиняться. Мне самому интересно, что вы хотели спросить. Не в обиду, но Я вас не понимаю по-англ. Что вы заметили именно? Что мне проверить? Скажите пожалуйста на русском
Нет такого слова «femine» в английском языке. Извините, мне трудно вас понять. Напишите по-русски пожалуйста, я легче смогу вас понять. Какой вопрос?
Спасибо большое, va-dim. Я буду рада, если ошибка моя, а не ресурса. Всегда полезно узнать что-то новое.
Извините. Возможно, этот вопрос не так критичен в моем случае, т. к. я не учу язык "с нуля", а тренирую его здесь. Но мне бы очень хотелось уточнить этот момент. И, вероятно, это поможет кому-то, кто будет учить польский на этом ресурсе. Именно поэтому я прошу Вас проверить то, что заметила я: в задании на перевод слова kobiety есть только один правильный вариант перевода - слово femine (т. е. "женский"). И, если ввести вместо него слово women, задание считается выполненным неправильно. Было бы правильным, мне кажется, если бы можно было написать один из вариантов и получить ответ "правильно, но можно и так..." (если уж "женский" тоже подходит для перевода слова kobiety). Еще раз извините за беспокойство и спасибо за потраченное время.
Я должен найти это упражнение чтобы увидеть точно что там. Но «женский» это «feminine» по-англ., а «feminine» по-польски значит «kobiecy».
kobiecy/-ca/-ce = feminine
kobieta = woman
kobiety = women
Jestem kobieca. = I am feminine (a feminine female).
Jestem kobiecy. = I am feminine (a feminine male).
It was "female". I don't think it's used often in English, but we accept it. Anyway, that's not a suggested option, if you made a small mistake it should rather correct you to "woman"...
Kobieta = woman klikam w trzy kropki i jest napisane woman a potem mam błąd bo piszą że powinno być female !!!
Wykasowałem 'female', to brzmi strasznie... naukowo i mogłoby być uznane za obraźliwe.
Pytanie, czy wpisana odpowiedź to było "I am a woman", bo samo "I am woman" jest błędne i być może dlatego program zasugerował "I am female". A być może był to po prostu bug.
Totaly confused with this question jestem kobietą some times it say i am a woman and some times says i am a female please tell me what is it
It can be both, although I really don't understand how you get the 'female' answer so often, it really shouldn't be suggested unless someone decides to write it down consciously...
Hi, I'm new to Polish and totally in love with the language and this course! Hope it won't turn into a curse (ehehe!). Anyway, I have a question, I know it's a bit dumb, but I'm curious: according to Eu range (A1, A2, B1,B2, C1, C2) which level you think you've reached with Duolingo?
I finished the Polish and Ukrainian courses on Duo. They definitely helped me understand the languages better due to vocabulary and basic grammar, but I can't say that I can speak them whatsoever. I can write them much better than I can speak them, because there is more time to think and correct oneself when writing.
So i tried "I am woman" and it marked me wrong. I was actually expecting it, but would still say it should be marked correct. I refer you to: I am woman. Hear me roar. Which, I think, translates as: Ja jestem kobietą. Posłuchaj jak ryczę.
"woman" with no article or noun determiner, refers to womankind. Kobieta just refers to "a woman." Different meanings
Can i clarify if there is a standard suffix in each verb for each state, like lubie(i), sz for You (Lubisz), my for We (Lubimy), cie for You (Lubicie).. Etc.. Are that letters always still the same whatever the verb is? Please explain for clarification.. Kinda confused here.
You're asking about verb conjugation patterns.
How does that relate here? The declension is instrumental, not accusative.
Is it just me or are the Polish spelling everything they say wrong. I mean I hear letters that are not even in the spelling of the words they are saying. This is not a thing in English. I mean yes, it happens with borrowed words, and there are many, but most of the time speakers can "sound out" the spelling. No, not with Polish. What is this?
Really English spelling is regular? What about for example "police" and "ice"; through/tough/though; food/flood/floor, etc. ?
It is actually very different. After a first shock, you should start noticing that Polish spelling is very regular. But it's just different from English spelling.
And for your entertainment, here is what I wrote, written how Polish person would hear it.
yt iz akczualy wery dyfrent after e ferst szok ju szud start notysyng det Połlisz speling iz wery regular. bat ytz dżast dyfrent from Inglisz spelling
and what you wrote
yz yt dżast mi or are de Połlisz spelling ewryfing dej sej rong. Aj min Aj hir leters dat ar not iwen yn de speling of de łordz dej are sejing. dyz iz not a fing in Inglisz. Aj min jes yt hepenz łif borołd łordz end dere are meny bat mołst of de tajm spikers ken sałnd ałt da speling. noł not łif Połlisz. Łot yz dys.
there are not many exceptions. Once you know the rules, which letter(s) is for which sound, you know how to say it 99% of time.
Ą sounds like oh, ohm, own, ohng. Ę sounds like Eh-oo, em, en, eng, depending on the consonant following. RZ is ZH, so is Ż and Ź, and Z before I too. SZ is SH, CZ is CH, S before I is also SH, so is Ś, C before I is also CH, so is Ć, Ń is like a Spanish Ñ
I wonder, why anyone didn't answer to this? As far as I know, it should be "jestem kobietą" not "...kobieta"?
You are right.
Some Slavic languages, including Polish, use the instrumental case after "to be" and "to become".