"Ja jestem mężczyzną."
Translation:I am a man.
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I think it's an animation meme. The song goes "And no bdiensdne And no sjnsndjs And no sjshdb but I am the man doo doo doo doo doo doo doo do do doo. I am the man"
Polish nouns and adjectives have 7 cases, they answer different questions, unfortunately these questions are hard to translate into English, but I will try: 1. who?/what? - mężczyznA (a man); 2. whose?/of what? - mężczyznY (man's/of man); 3. to who(m)?/to what? - mężczyźnIE (to a man); 4. whom?/what? - mężczyznĘ (like in "widzę mężczyznę"-"I see a man"); 5. (with) who?/(by) what? - (z) mężczyznĄ (with a man or "man" in "I am a man"); 6. about who/what? OR where?- o/w mężczyźnIE (about a man or in a man) 7. this one has no question, it's used for calling - mężczynO! (you, man!).
In sentences like "I am X"/"He is Y" we use the fifth case, in English it may seem illogical, but in Polish the fifth case answers two questions: 1. "z kim?" (with who?) OR 2. "kim?" (and here English has no simple translation, it's something like "who (am I)?"/"who (is he)?" etc. - hence "Ja jestem mężczyzną".
Yes, I know, it's really hard, but all Indo-European languages had similar cases, later many of them lost it at some point of their development - in this regard Polish is very archaic, it even has that seventh case (vocative) like in Latin.
But the Hungarian case system is much easier, you basically take a noun and then you add some particle, so it's something like: house-in, car-by, friend-with etc., while in Polish it's like: in house+proper case ending.
I started all over after getting totally lost in those cases. Thank you for this list.
So, the first case is nominative, the fifth instrumental, the fourth accusative and the seventh vocative. Am I right so far?
That leaves me with genitive, dative and one more. Can anyone help me here?
Thanks User A. I've learned several languages so far. Mostly I'd get along with some basic grammar, the rest would come naturaly with a little exercise. Polish though requires digging deeper. After I posted my question I searched further. I've now made some more detailed notes using the info on https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Polish. Maybe also a good tip for other who struggle with cases. Now see that I get some feeling fot the endings.
Yes, it's almost exactly like in Russian. The main difference is that Russian lost the vocative case. There are also many minor differences, when the same verbs "trigger" different cases.
As far as I know, among modern Slavic languages only Bulgarian and Macedonian don't have this type of case system.
Well, on the other hand you have those unique articles or the inferential mood that are quite difficult for other Slavs.
In general, keep in mind that thanks to the declension (change of cases) the word order in Polish can be very flexible. While in some languages, like German or Swedish, you NEED to keep a certain word order, and you need to be pretty careful about it in English too, in Polish, thanks to declension, you have more freedom (of course, some variations are more natural, and some of them are less natural). Poles often use different cases, when English people have to use prepositions instead. Some example of this sentence freedom: the sentences Dziewczyna lubi chłopaka and Dziewczynę lubi chłopak, although seemigly similar, mean something else. The first one means "The girl likes the boy" and the second one "The boy likes the girl". The second one is not a neutral sentence (Chłopak lubi dziewczynę" would be neutral), but it still conveys the meaning
Both neutral and natural. Neutral, meaning, it does not sound like an unusual way to say something. I believe the issue might be related to the so-called "markedness" in the language, but I do not remember anymore whether it applies only to words, or to the order in sentences too.
In Russian we have a synonym of the verb "to be" in terms of "to be someone or something" - "являться" (a kind of "to appear" in English), that always works with the instrumental case. I am not a linguist, but my guess is:
Someone or something can "be" or "appear" in (by) different ways, so the "appearance" acts here as an "instrument".
- I am a man, I appear by the way of a man.
UPD. The instrument is "a way of being".
The reason for this in Russian is that являться historically comes from являть-ся < jõviti + sę which means являть себя (to display/present self). As such, verb is transitive [subject] presents [self] and a third argument would have to be neither in Accusative, nor in Nominative. It thus makes sense for a particular case to be used, Instrumental. So, the construction would be [субъект] является (кем? чем?) [слово в творительном падеже] = subject displays/presents self (as whom?)
Instrumental is used in such constructions in modern Russian. For example, представлять себя (кем?) космонавт-ом 'imagine self as a cosmonaut'
A sound comment from a fellow user:" All "Y-nouns" in sentences like: "X-noun is Y-noun" or "X-personal pronoun is Y-noun" take the instrumental case, while "Y-nouns" in sentences like "X-demonstrative is Y-noun" take the nominative case, so "Ja jestem kobietą", but "To jest kobieta"."
I am trying to learn my ancestors' languages, also (except German because I am afraid I will never catch on to it, buf now that I've typed it, Ifeel Ishould give it an honezt try...), so you are not alone. I am also trying to learn Lithuanian, because my husband's biological father is from Lithuania. I need to learn it to help him learn it lol. If that makes me weird to want to know my ancestral languages, so be it!
Yes, it does - the Polish Commonwealth's longest border was, for a long time, the one shared with Turkey, and the cultural exchange proved inevitable. <br><br> More so, from the alternate linguistics' angle (and how it is that it's only the alternate linguistics that acknowledge that the standard test of checking how alike counting system is - marks a strikingly high likeness between Slavic languages and Sanskrit) - Turkish is still notably different from Slavic languages, but closer to them than to any of the West-European language groups, as it shares a lot of phonemes.
Whoa this is really funny to me because in Czech we normally use 1st case, or the 7th (seems like you have different numbers for them, but meaning if the case is it same) - but to say it in 7th is very old fashioned, archaic even. I think I am going to have a lot of fun with Polish :)
Well, so while we're still in the Slavic family, apparently they work differently here. When you have an "X is Y" sentence, there are usually two options: X + a form of "być" + Y in Instrumental, and X + to + Y in Nominative.
But the second option doesn't work when X is a personal pronoun, and seems rather clumsy (but acceptable when X is a person, like "My brother".
You can read more about it here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/16373167
Mężczyzna and mężczyzną and just two shapes of the same word, one is in nominative, and other in instrumental grammatical case. It depends on a function that the noun has. Nominative is used for example when noun is a subject, and accusative when it has a function of an object in the sentence. You can find declention for most of the word on wiktionary. Here is for mężczyzna https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/mężczyzna
We used to not have any power over which voice reads which sentences. Now we have power over the translation exercises (and in those it should only be read by the male voice), but not the listening exercises, I'm afraid. In those, it will be random. Think of it as just someone reading a sentence from a book.
Ja means I, but jestem is only 'am' Since in Polish every person(grammatical) has it's own word (jestem, jesteś, jest, jesteśmy, jesteście) there is no need to say the subject too. It's like me saying 'Am running' in English, you know that it's me running, but that's just not natural for English speakers to do. In Polish that is natural and used often.