Keep in mind that we often drop pronouns in the first and the second person in Polish. Therefore we will usually just say "jestem kobietą" or "jesteś kobietą". We are more likely to keep pronouns in the third person "Ona jest kobietą", because otherwise it will not sound very natural. However, if the person referred to is mentioned in the sentence before, especially in a question, we are likely to drop the pronoun here too. E.g. "Co ona robi?" (What is she doing?). Je. (she is eating). But it is safer if you use the pronouns at the beginning, when you do not "feel" the language yet. By the way, we never use pronouns, when we talk about the weather. So while in English you will say "it is raining", we will just say "pada", without using any pronouns. If you try to use the Polish equivalent of "it", it will actually be incorrect. But do not worry, you do not really have to know it yet. Just enjoy the ride :)
Does Polish have a word for "it"?
I thought that in languages such as Polish and Spanish (which rely heavily on conjugation), the 3rd person singular form is "he" or "she" if you say "on" or "ona" (or if it is implied from context), but if no pronoun is given (or implied), then it means "it".
So "On pada." = "He is raining."; "Ona pada." = "She is raining."; and "Pada." = "It is raining.", correct? (Of course, the first two don't make sense.)
It does. The word for "it" in Polish is "ono". You would use it when referring to a subject of neuter gramatical gender (ie. a child, a tree - dziecko, drzewo - those are usually the nouns ending with -o and -e with several exceptions).
The given example with the word "pada" is not the best one. "Padać" generally means "to rain", but it also can, in some context, mean "to fall" or rather "to be falling" as one does not imply with one has already fallen or is it the process of doing so (that is, it is the imperfective aspect of the verb "paść").
"On/a/o pada" would be used pretty rarely ie. in a situation when someone is terribly exhausted due to some excessive fatigue (the correct English verb for this situation would be "to flake out" or more formally - "to collapse"). For example, "On pada po całodniowej wycieczce w górach" (He is flaking out after a whole day of a trip in the mountains).
One would almost never use "On pada" when referring to the rain. Indeed, "deszcz" in Polish is masculine, but it is not regarded as a sole entity, so giving him the pronoun "on" would be associated with kind of personification and thus would be used only in poems or other types of artistic expression. In everyday language, let's just focus on "Pada".
P.S. One would generally express the verb "to fall" with "spaść/spadać".
Probably "Jutro będzie padać". Unless it's winter and 'padać' is more likely to be interpreted as snowing, so then "Jutro będzie padać/padał deszcz", possibly "Jutro będzie deszcz", or "Jutro będzie deszczowo" (rainy).
Kobieta became kobietą because it's in the Instrumental case, right?
Does it mean that the verb " To be" always need an "instrumental Case",
Generally - yes. Apart from the construction "To jest...+ noun", (This is...) in which we use nominative case.
I thought that czech and polish case work the same but this makes me wonder... Though we can use instumental for "I am.." constructions, I'd say it is more often to use the nominativ.. It is not like that in Polish?
Not really, apart from introducing yourself (Jestem Marek = I am Marek vs 'Jestem Markiem' which would be something like 'I am a Marek' and sound absurd).
Slowly but surely making progress. What an interesting and intelligent language
A typical Pole learning grammar of polish language up to 18 years. Despite this fact only 50% (or less) know the rules. This is an intuitive language. Throughout my life I met only one foreigner who spoke Polish correctly. Even on TV I did not see any person (foreigner) who speaking correctly.
I am polish and lerning polish. Thru english and its funy how many mistakes i have made so far
why not "i am THE woman"? since there are no articles? the difference between "a" and "the" would be contextual, so both should be acceptable here it seems...?
They do. I purposely tried "the" because of all the funny comments on "I am the man" in my Italian lesson. No funny comments for the ladies version, I'm afraid
And I thought polish would be easier than russian because of easier alphabet. Oh man, nyet.
Polish is one of the most difficult languages on the World for example Slovenian is So much simmilar to Polish but Polish is harder
Why does the a at the end have a little dash under it? Does that dash/ curve mean it's plural?
ę and ą are nasal sounds, so the little hook (called an ogonek) indicates that the vowel is pronounced differently.
In this case, kobietą is the instrumental case of the noun kobieta, used after the verb "to be" to indicate the thing that you are (or that someone or something is).
In Poland ,more Polish people don't say "ja" and they just say "jestem"
(Ja)Jestem studentem z Warszawy. -I am a student from Warsaw.
And in most pro-drop languages. You can drop the subject because it's clear whom you're speaking about either from the verb or from context.
Ja jestem > jestem
Yo soy > soy
Eu sunt > sunt
Even Japanese, if you stretch a little.
So is it like Japanese how often they don't say the pronoun because it's taken with context?
More like the Spanish not saying the pronoun, because the verb ending itself shows which pronoun it would be. Each pronoun causes a different verb ending. Well - maybe not each, in present tense he/she/it is of the same ending.
I am in the process of learning this language kobieta reminds me of another language. Is it Russian? Ive heard it before when i came across another language. Maybe its Bulgarian.
Not Bulgarian, in Bulgarian it's жена (zhena). Interesting, I thought kobieta was specifically Polish, since it used to be an insult in some medieval times or that's what I heard from my teacher
"Kobieta" is the basic, Nominative form.
"Kobietą" is Instrumental. You will learn here when to use Instrumental.
Learn where? I've been looking all over for a basic definition of an instrumental case but they all confuse me :( XD
I don't understand the difference in saying ja jestem koieta and ja jestem kobieta-hook
only "(Ja) jestem kobietą" is correct. In Polish a and ą are two different letters like l and t.
In Pokish nouns change depending on their function in sentence, after "jestem" you need "instrumental case" and for word kobiet-a "a" changes to "ą".
I am loving this language. It has so many rules and so, ~really unique= ?D Let`s go for it!
Why in the correct answer NOT in the first case ?
I understand that the first case is Nominative. There are generally two variants of saying "X is Y" in Polish, but there are exceptions. And if X is a personal pronoun, and Y is a noun phrase, the only really correct and natural option is the one with Instrumental.
More information here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/16373167 - especially Part 2.
Can you not use the "XXX to YYY" construction for people? Or did I do something else wrong with "Ja to kobieta"?
Yes, that's the situation when using "X to Y" construction seems just wrong. Not after a personal pronoun.
Also, I'd say that if X is something like "Martha", "My boss" or "This guy", using "X to Y" is rather clumsy, but we do accept it.
How would the sense of "I am THE woman" be conveyed in Polish as opposed to "A woman"? Is there any linguistics mean to do it, or it requires context?
You could decide that "the" is in many contexts almost the same as "this" and therefore translate it as "Jestem tą kobietą", but generally it's rather contextual.
When would you actually feel the need to say "I am THE woman"? Just curious.
We mustn't use pronoun with verbs, must be "jestem..." , a nie "ja jestem..."!
it is just me or polish have some similarities to russian? they are part from the same language family?
They are roughly in the same family of Slavic languages, though Polish is in the West Slavic branch with Czech and Slovak and some others. Russian is an East Slavic language along with Ukrainian.
I see is just that I noticed some words that are exactly the same but the writing due Russian uses Cyrillic, ja as I, on as he, ona as she, chleb as bread, nie as no, oda as water, and so on, and I'm just in the first levels... Guess I'll find out what others similarities there are as I go farther on it,
This is big problem when polish native speaker learn russian language. In these languages very often appears homonyms -> words which having the same spelling but different meanings. For example: склеп in russian means "tumb" but in polish means "shop".
Yeah, I decided to start to learn the language at least a bit due to the fact me laughing my ass off of homonyms or at least the words I define like that
Is the mark under the "a" like a period? Does it have to be on the last letter of the last word in a sentence?
No -- it's more like the hook at the bottom that turns an i into a j -- a and ą are two different letters in the Polish alphabet, as are e and ę.
No, the Polish interpunction doesn't have such surprises, a period looks the same as in English and I believe most languages.
What's the difference between kobiete and kobiete with the symbol below the e?
I don't think kobiete without the hook exists.
kobietę is the accusative case of kobieta and would be used, for example, when the woman is a direct object, e.g. Widzę kobietę "I see the woman".
When do I use 'ą'? For instance there's "Kobieta" and "Kobietą". Dziekuje
In many things. One general rule is that if female noun ends with -a, it's instrumental case ends with -ą.
Yes, that is wrong.
"women" with an E is the plural.
You should have written "woman" with an A, which is the singular.
"pay attention to accents" it says. I can only type 'kobieta' i cannot enter the 'a' with squiggle. I only have the following options for a - àáäæâãå , so how do i get the Polish a with squiggle? I can get these other ones without problem - ł ż Any ideas anyone?
They are different case forms of the same word.
Kind of like the difference between "he" and "him", or "I" and "me" -- which are not different words, just different forms of "the same word", used where grammar requires it.
kobieta is the nomninative case, used when it's the subject.
kobietą is the instrumental case, used (among other things) after the verb "to be".
So you might have a silly sentence such as kobieta jest kobietą "a woman is a woman".
Not true. In this sentence, "kobieta" is in the instrumental case, and in the instrumental case the noun endings change: http://mowicpopolsku.com/polish-grammar/cases/instrumental/