Keep in mind that we often drop pronouns in the first and the second person in Polish. Therefore we will usually just say "jestem kobietą" or "jesteś kobietą". We are more likely to keep pronouns in the third person "Ona jest kobietą", because otherwise it will not sound very natural. However, if the person referred to is mentioned in the sentence before, especially in a question, we are likely to drop the pronoun here too. E.g. "Co ona robi?" (What is she doing?). Je. (she is eating). But it is safer if you use the pronouns at the beginning, when you do not "feel" the language yet. By the way, we never use pronouns, when we talk about the weather. So while in English you will say "it is raining", we will just say "pada", without using any pronouns. If you try to use the Polish equivalent of "it", it will actually be incorrect. But do not worry, you do not really have to know it yet. Just enjoy the ride :)
Does Polish have a word for "it"?
I thought that in languages such as Polish and Spanish (which rely heavily on conjugation), the 3rd person singular form is "he" or "she" if you say "on" or "ona" (or if it is implied from context), but if no pronoun is given (or implied), then it means "it".
So "On pada." = "He is raining."; "Ona pada." = "She is raining."; and "Pada." = "It is raining.", correct? (Of course, the first two don't make sense.)
It does. The word for "it" in Polish is "ono". You would use it when referring to a subject of neuter gramatical gender (ie. a child, a tree - dziecko, drzewo - those are usually the nouns ending with -o and -e with several exceptions).
The given example with the word "pada" is not the best one. "Padać" generally means "to rain", but it also can, in some context, mean "to fall" or rather "to be falling" as one does not imply with one has already fallen or is it the process of doing so (that is, it is the imperfective aspect of the verb "paść").
"On/a/o pada" would be used pretty rarely ie. in a situation when someone is terribly exhausted due to some excessive fatigue (the correct English verb for this situation would be "to flake out" or more formally - "to collapse"). For example, "On pada po całodniowej wycieczce w górach" (He is flaking out after a whole day of a trip in the mountains).
One would almost never use "On pada" when referring to the rain. Indeed, "deszcz" in Polish is masculine, but it is not regarded as a sole entity, so giving him the pronoun "on" would be associated with kind of personification and thus would be used only in poems or other types of artistic expression. In everyday language, let's just focus on "Pada".
P.S. One would generally express the verb "to fall" with "spaść/spadać".
A typical Pole learning grammar of polish language up to 18 years. Despite this fact only 50% (or less) know the rules. This is an intuitive language. Throughout my life I met only one foreigner who spoke Polish correctly. Even on TV I did not see any person (foreigner) who speaking correctly.
ę and ą are nasal sounds, so the little hook (called an ogonek) indicates that the vowel is pronounced differently.
In this case, kobietą is the instrumental case of the noun kobieta, used after the verb "to be" to indicate the thing that you are (or that someone or something is).
I see is just that I noticed some words that are exactly the same but the writing due Russian uses Cyrillic, ja as I, on as he, ona as she, chleb as bread, nie as no, oda as water, and so on, and I'm just in the first levels... Guess I'll find out what others similarities there are as I go farther on it,
I have read and understood Polish texts because I know Russian, but I could never dare to write anything. Duolingo might help. There are many jokes about homophones: divan, bruki etc., but I do not know the Polish spelling, just heard them sound similar to Russian words with different meaning.
I understand that the first case is Nominative. There are generally two variants of saying "X is Y" in Polish, but there are exceptions. And if X is a personal pronoun, and Y is a noun phrase, the only really correct and natural option is the one with Instrumental.
More information here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/16373167 - especially Part 2.
They are different case forms of the same word.
Kind of like the difference between "he" and "him", or "I" and "me" -- which are not different words, just different forms of "the same word", used where grammar requires it.
kobieta is the nomninative case, used when it's the subject.
kobietą is the instrumental case, used (among other things) after the verb "to be".
So you might have a silly sentence such as kobieta jest kobietą "a woman is a woman".
https://www.duolingo.com/skill/pl/Possession/tips-and-notes Are there tips on DL like the Possession tips that give simple explanations for the different cases-- what each is or means? Please provide link. Thanks.
The Tips are under the appropriate skills, although only for a part of the course. You can easily access them here as well: https://duome.eu/tips/en/pl
That post tries to collect all the useful discussion on Polish, you can find several posts on cases there: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/16296174