Every single time I have a heart attack, because my immediate translation (as a slavic language speaker) is "I'm eating a boy".
I get you,it can get confusing,in Croatian ˝je˝ would be ˝is˝. -Ona je djevojčica (She is a little girl) -Ja jedem kruh/hljeb (I am eating bread/i eat)
The Polish suffixes are a nightmare,although so far i can always guess the meaning without peeking.
I think its like the same "basics"... Oh.. Boy is 'bread eater' to me.. But you think eating bread is the backwards version?... I been studying russian on here for 3,000 xp.
Ты изучаешь русский язык, а тебе надо учиться английским языком. То что ты написала сверху, по-английски это каряка маляка. Напиши по-русски и Я помогу придать смысл.
So whenever you use "być" (to be), do you always use the Instrumental case?
The copula (also called a stative verb or a linking verb) never takes the accusative because only active verbs that are transitive take the accusative. Many languages simply use the nominative there because the subject and the predicate are being equated or compared in some way.
For whatever reason, though, some Slavic languages use the instrumental case after "to be" and "to become" (except in a small number of cases where it uses the nominative). The link in my previous comment gives a brief list of cases in Polish.
Does all Slavic languages use Instrumental case after "to be" and " to become" ? I do not find it in Russian and Ukarinian . In both languages Nominative case is used. Correct me please, if I am wrong!
You're correct about Russian and Ukrainian, "to be," in the present tense, ru: Я мальчик (ja mal'cik), ua: Я хлопчик (ja chlopczyk), but the instrumental case is used in the past and future tense of "to be," ru: Я был/буду мальчиком (Ja byl/budu mal'cikom), ua: Я був/буду хлопчиком (ja buw/budu chlopczykom).
If English marked cases, then in the sentence "I hit the ball with the bat", "the bat" would be instrumental ("the ball" would be accusative, since it's the direct object of "hit"). That's a very simple example, though.
In Polish, they also use the instrumental after "to be", "to become", and "to be interested in something". https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Polish/Noun_cases#Instrumental
Can't find a way to 'reply' I probably did mean what you suggested, was it 'declension'?
Yes, nouns and their respective adjectives are declined into the proper case, gender, and number. That's declension
I like to think of the instrumental case in this sense as the renaming case. I (the subject) is being renamed to "the boy". Anytime you rename something it will take accusative case.
Other than the nail being hit "by a hammer," młotkiem (a hammer is młotek), instrumental case after the verb "to be" (być) is also used to mean "in the state of being."
Ja jestem chłopcem. = I am [in the state of being] a boy.
Typically, it marks the means by which an action is taken. If I hit a nail with a hammer, the nail takes the accusative because it is the direct recipient of the action, and hammer takes the instrumental because it was used to carry out the action.
In most languages, nouns take the nominative (subject) case after stative verbs (verbs describing the state of a thing, not any action). But in Polish for whatever reason, nouns take the instrumental after "to be" and "to become".
"Chłopiec" is nominative case, used for sentence subjects.
"Chłopcem" is instrumental case, used after verb copulas (the "to be" verb which equates the identical nature of subject and object instead of expressing action). Instrumental case is also used for various other things, but that's beside the point just now.
It's funny, because my native language is slavic, but this translates to in Slovene, I eat workers
Also in mine, except that it means little granddaughter and also it can be little grandson
In Russian, grandson is vnuk внук but "little grandson" or its term of endearment can be vnučok внучок. I love Slavic languages, but Slovenian is the hardest for me to understand. I think it's the most distantly related to Russian.
"Chłopiec" is a diminutive version of "chłopak," which itself is a diminutive of "chłop" (which formerly meant "adult person," but now means "peasant").
I am having trouble understanding her when she says chleb. Is it pronounced klep or shleb?
Neither. It's "χlep" or "χleb," depending on what sounds (if any) follow it.
(I'm using a Greek chi there, not an English x, because the Polish "ch" sound doesn't have a standard English spelling).
The "ch" sound is an "h" formed in the back of the mouth (like a "k," but you don't close the airflow entirely), as in the Yiddish "chutzpah," the German "ach," or the Greek "χρήστος" ("Christos," Christ).
In general, "b" is just "b," the same as in English. However, when certain Polish consonants appear at certain positions, they are devoiced. When the "b" is devoiced, it will be pronounced "p."
The same process occurs with any consonant that is formed by obstructing the airflow, including (but not limited to) "d," "g," "w," "z," and "ź" (which devoice to "t," "k," "f," "s," and "ś," respectively).
These consonants are devoiced at the the end of a sequence of words, so the word "chleb" all by itself is pronounced with the "b" devoiced to "p." In a cluster of consonants, even across word boundaries, they are either all voiced or none of them are, depending on the final consonant in the cluster (not counting "w" or "rz").
Yes, that voicing/devoicing stuff is complicated. The TL;DR version is "do it the way that makes things less effort to say; you get a feel for it."
Yes, I went on YouTube and it sounds fine. Also 'h' and 'ch' have the same pronunciation.
The quick answer is that when something is something else, the "something else" nouns after the "is/are" decline into the instrumental case after the verb być (jestem jesteś jest jesteśmy jesteście są etc.)
Chłopiec is the normative case.
Chłopcem is instrumental case.
The "-ą" ending would by typical in the instrumental case for feminine nouns.
Masculine nouns in the instrumental case, with some exceptions, take the "-em" ending (or "-iem" after a soft consonant).
Now that sounds like what I heard! Never got into delineation, etc. even the school classes were very rudimentary. But the masculine/feminine aspect of the language was important.
No, that's not how this noun class declines. According to timstellmach in the comment above, "chłopcem" is the instrumental case. The nominative is "chłopiec".
It seems that there is a pattern to words that have "ie" in that it seems to be dropped for the instrumental:
Chłopiec - Chłopcem
Pies - Psem
Well, firstly, you lost the 'h' in 'ch'. It is one sound, identical as 'h'. The lack of Polish 'ł' is a different thing, I'd really recommend using a Polish keyboard.
Chłopiec is the basic, Nominative case. Chłopcem is Instrumental case. Apart from other meanings, you need the noun phrase in Instrumental after a form of 'być' (to be). If the notion of 'cases' is new to you, my advice is to check this post for posts about it.
I got an error message saying i was wrong and that the correct answer is i am a "small" boy
Wait... OK, "small boy" would make sense ("chłopiec" is used for children, after all), but the only currently accepted versions are either just "boy" (accepted) and "little boy"...
chłopcem is in the instrumental case, which it should be after the verb "I am," jestem. Chłopiec is in the nominative case, which it would be in, when it is the subject of the sentence.
Polish uses the instrumental case after both "to be" and "to become". It takes a little getting used to, because the Western European languages use the nominative case after all copulae.
It's Instrumental. "chłopiec" changes into "chłopcem". Generally -em will be the most common Instrumental ending for masculine nouns.
Why the heck isn't it chlopiec this time. This is so confusing seriously
After the verb "to be," być, in this case jestem, "I am," the noun takes the instrumental case.
I entered "I am a boy" (no full stop) and it was rejected. Also the 'my answer should have been accepted' is missing from the report button. If anyone reads this...
Punctuation isn't marked, so it must have been a bug. I don't know about the reports... what platform are you using?
It's not that easy to explain why, just remember that this declension is a bit irregular
Here's the full declension table, I hope it helps:
Whats the difference bewteen chlopiec and chlopiecem and what is the proper grammer?
After the verb jestem/jesteś/jest/jesteśmy/ jesteście/są ("am/is/are"), the object takes the instrumental case. In this example the noun chłopiec in the nominative case becomes chłopcem in the instrumental case.
You can find the "declension of chłopiec" link on this page:
Don't know this 'instrumental/nominative stuff, but 'ja jestem chlopiec' "sounds right".
No, it doesn't sound right. It sounds broken, like in English "I am boy," sounds broken. This "nominative/instrumental stuff" is an integrative part of Slavic languages. Without noun cases, meaning is difficult to ascertain, due to there being no articles, limited prepositions, and because of flexible word order. English meaning is determined by exactly the opposite. Ridgid word order/sentence structure, numerous prepositions in use, and definite/indefinite articles.
I am a boy. I am the boy.
Jestem chłopcem. Chłopcem jestem. Ja jestem chłopcem. Chłopcem jestem ja. Chłopcem ja jestem. etc.