"They have children."
Translation:Oni mają dzieci.
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Question: if you did not need to specify which type of "they" you mean (I can't currently think of an example...maybe if you didn't know the genders of those in the group?), would you be able to merely say "Mają dzieci."? Or is it a rule that you have to specify whether the group contains a male or not?
Yes, it is Accusative plural... well, it's not exactly neuter, because we don't think in terms of masculine/feminine/neuter in plural, but of course the singular word "dziecko" is neuter, so basically you're right.
"dziecka" is a correct form, but for a singular "child". It's Genitive.
I am not sure you are asking the question that pye20 is answering. The ą is there at the end because the subject is the third person singular, "they." Indo-European languages change their verbs to indicate the subject of the verb, though in English this is quite limited. Our verb "to have" only has different forms for the third person singular, he, she, or it "has." It looks like you are doing a bit of Russian as well, though, another Slavic language, so you will see similarly conjugated verbs there. There is no real verb to have in modern Russian (you may see the word related to the Polish one, иметь, if you get a bit more advanced), but you will see они иду́т, for instance, for "they go," as opposed to я иду́ (I go) or он идёт (he goes). This verb conjugation (that's what the changing form is called) will be one of the most important things you learn early on in any new language.