"They have children."
Translation:One mają dzieci.
Question: if you did not need to specify which type of "they" you mean (I can't currently think of an example...maybe if you didn't know the genders of those in the group?), would you be able to merely say "Mają dzieci."? Or is it a rule that you have to specify whether the group contains a male or not?
Yes, it is Accusative plural... well, it's not exactly neuter, because we don't think in terms of masculine/feminine/neuter in plural, but of course the singular word "dziecko" is neuter, so basically you're right.
"dziecka" is a correct form, but for a singular "child". It's Genitive.
[ 1502 English: Ordynarye of crystyanyte or of crysten men - ] • Polish, like English, has had Orthographic reform over the last millenia; 1956, 1936, 19th & 18 centuries, and earlier. The nasal vowel spelling of ą /ɔ̃/ [ɔw̃] Ą and ę /ɛ̃/ [ɛw̃] Ę was inconsistent up through the Middle Ages • am, an, e, em, en, o, um, un, ø • digraphs, new characters and diacritics have been used to represent the nasal vowels sounds.
Old Polish 9-16th centuries • Polish Orthography • history 12th century Latin Alphabet adoption • Some of the detail for the adoption of the current 2nd letter, ą ** /ɔɰ̃/ Ą, of the Polish Alphabet may have a long history to unravel.
I am not sure you are asking the question that pye20 is answering. The ą is there at the end because the subject is the third person singular, "they." Indo-European languages change their verbs to indicate the subject of the verb, though in English this is quite limited. Our verb "to have" only has different forms for the third person singular, he, she, or it "has." It looks like you are doing a bit of Russian as well, though, another Slavic language, so you will see similarly conjugated verbs there. There is no real verb to have in modern Russian (you may see the word related to the Polish one, иметь, if you get a bit more advanced), but you will see они иду́т, for instance, for "they go," as opposed to я иду́ (I go) or он идёт (he goes). This verb conjugation (that's what the changing form is called) will be one of the most important things you learn early on in any new language.