Earlier I tried "dziecko je chleb" as 'Child is eating bread' which was reported wrong, the correction being that an indefinite or definite article should be there (A child ... or The child ...).
So regarding this sentence "kobiety jedzą chleb" I tried what I expected to be wrong 'Women are eating bread' but that is reportely right, which surprised me as it seems inconsistent with the earlier sentence. Maybe because the latter is plural?
Sorry, I'm an absolute beginner in Polish :)
In your examples, you would need an article (either definite or indefinite) with child. Similarly, you couldn't say "I see child". The only exception to this rule is if the noun is uncountable(in which case it can't take an indefinite article), so you can say "Milk tastes good" or "The milk tastes good", but not "A milk tastes good."
For the plural, there is no indefinite plural article (like French des), so an article is not needed. That's why it is correct to say "Women eat...", but not "Woman eats".
In English you can have countable and uncountable nouns. "Woman" is countable, since you can have "one woman", "two women", "three women", etc. (Nouns that are uncountable are often measured in volume, such as milk or water; you can't normally say "one milk" or "two milks" unless you mean "one cup/glass/litre of milk.")
If you have a countable noun in the singular, it needs an article. The article can be definite ("the") or indefinite ("a/an") depending on the context, but there has to be one there. In the plural an article in not always required, since English does not have a plural, indefinite article.
If you actually typed "The women eats bread," then the mistake was in subject-verb agreement; "women" is plural but "eats" is singular.