I found this link that explains how Polish nouns are declined into the instrumental case.
Is there or would there be a grammatical lesson on duolingo for discussing the instrumental case vs others since it doesn't exist in English? The best hints I'm seeing is it is always used with certain verbs like "to be" and after prepositions. This affects the noun ending only or the verb ending too?
Mianownik: dziewczynka Dopełniacz: dziewczynki Celownik: dziewczynce Biernik: dziewczynkę Narzędnik: dziewczynką Miejscownik: dziewczynce Wołacz: dziewczynko
Mianownik: dziewczynki Dopełniacz: dziewczynek Celownik: dziewczynkom Biernik: dziewczynki Narzędnik: dziewczynkami Miejscownik: dziewczynkach Wołacz: dziewczynki
"dziewczyna" is not a pronoun, it's an ordinary noun that means "girl".
Polish just uses the instrumental case after "to be" and "to become".
We usually do not say "ja", "ty" etc., because the verb names a person. Only sometimes, when we want to make it stronger that me, not someobe else but exactly me, or sth. Example: - Lubisz ten zespół? (Do you like this band) - Nie do końca. (Actually not) - Cóż, ja lubię. (Well, I like it)
This excellent resource provides audio samples of each letter, as well as example Polish and English words. http://mowicpopolsku.com/polish-alphabet-pronunciation/ Practise speaking aloud at the same time as the audio -- you should feel your voice resonate wit the computer's when you're making the correct sound.
"Why" is a funny question here. The real answer is "that's just the way it's done." It's common in Polish to de-nasalize a final "ę" (inlcuding "-ęl" and "-ęł").
Some people pronounce it, some don't, and in some regions it even gets emphasized to an "-em." My understanding is that the most common dialect generally de-nasalizes it, though.
That's just a quirk of Polish grammar.
In Russian we can use both. )
nomenative: Я (есть) девочка. (Ja (jest') devochka) // generally verb is omited
Instrumental: Я являюсь девочкой. (Ja javlyajus' devochkoj)
Second variant sounds little strange, but grammatically is correct.
Interesting, that in past tense we use instrumental case.
Я была девочкой. (Ja byla devochkoj) // I was a girl
And in future too:
Я буду девочкой. (Ja budu devochkoj) // I will be a girl.
If English declined nouns the way Polish did, then in the following sentence:
John hit the ball with the bat.
"the bat" would be in the instrumental case. It marks the tool, or instrument, used to achieve the action of the verb.
Now then, Polish is a little unusual in that it uses the instrumental after "to be" or "to become". Most other languages would have that in the nominative (subject form) because "to be" and "to become" are not transitive verbs nor are they even active verbs. They are stative verbs. They set up an equality or comparison between the subject and the predicate.