I wonder why we have ą at the end. Does this concern all nouns which end with A, and in instrumental case it becomes ą: jestem dziewczynką...kobietą??
I found this link that explains how Polish nouns are declined into the instrumental case.
Yes, every word ending with -a has the instrumental case ending with -ą. :-)
Sometimes its an ą but sometimes its an a. It's all hard to explain but there are certain situations.
Is there or would there be a grammatical lesson on duolingo for discussing the instrumental case vs others since it doesn't exist in English? The best hints I'm seeing is it is always used with certain verbs like "to be" and after prepositions. This affects the noun ending only or the verb ending too?
Case endings are usually only for nouns/pronouns and adjectives. You can search Google for "grammatical cases in Polish" and get some good resources.
Mianownik: dziewczynka Dopełniacz: dziewczynki Celownik: dziewczynce Biernik: dziewczynkę Narzędnik: dziewczynką Miejscownik: dziewczynce Wołacz: dziewczynko
Mianownik: dziewczynki Dopełniacz: dziewczynek Celownik: dziewczynkom Biernik: dziewczynki Narzędnik: dziewczynkami Miejscownik: dziewczynkach Wołacz: dziewczynki
Why do I have to put in the 'ą' at the end of the pronoun? Does this mean that I will have to put 'ą', and the 'ę' at the end of every pronoun in sentences?
"dziewczyna" is not a pronoun, it's an ordinary noun that means "girl".
Polish just uses the instrumental case after "to be" and "to become".
In this case it's using the instrumental form.. strange but it ends in 'ą' for this particular word.
If you were to say 'I am an apple', you'd say: Ja jestem jabłkiem which is the instrumental of jabłko
What is the ł sound? In jabłko i heard it exactly like we say it in Croatian,jabuka,except your ends with o
Generally ends up sounding like a W, but here, it's jammed between two consonants and sounds more like a short U.
Yes, it is. It's not incorrect to include it, but unless you want it there for emphasis or contrast, it can also be safely omitted.
We usually do not say "ja", "ty" etc., because the verb names a person. Only sometimes, when we want to make it stronger that me, not someobe else but exactly me, or sth. Example: - Lubisz ten zespół? (Do you like this band) - Nie do końca. (Actually not) - Cóż, ja lubię. (Well, I like it)
This excellent resource provides audio samples of each letter, as well as example Polish and English words. http://mowicpopolsku.com/polish-alphabet-pronunciation/ Practise speaking aloud at the same time as the audio -- you should feel your voice resonate wit the computer's when you're making the correct sound.
Why is final ą clearly nasalized while I do not hear hear the same for final ę?
"Why" is a funny question here. The real answer is "that's just the way it's done." It's common in Polish to de-nasalize a final "ę" (inlcuding "-ęl" and "-ęł").
Some people pronounce it, some don't, and in some regions it even gets emphasized to an "-em." My understanding is that the most common dialect generally de-nasalizes it, though.
Why is this constructed "I am + instrumental", and not "I am + nominative"?
That's just a quirk of Polish grammar.
In Russian we can use both. )
nomenative: Я (есть) девочка. (Ja (jest') devochka) // generally verb is omited
Instrumental: Я являюсь девочкой. (Ja javlyajus' devochkoj)
Second variant sounds little strange, but grammatically is correct.
Interesting, that in past tense we use instrumental case.
Я была девочкой. (Ja byla devochkoj) // I was a girl
And in future too:
Я буду девочкой. (Ja budu devochkoj) // I will be a girl.
"być" takes the instrumental case in general (the main exception being when introducing oneself, which does take the nominative).
"dziewczynka" is the Nominative form. That is the basic form, which you can find in a dictionary. "dziewczynką" is Instrumental. Among other usages that you will find out later, a noun phrase has to take Instrumental after a form of "być" (to be).
Let me see if I understood. "Dziewczynka" is the caso of the subject, right? And "dziewczynką" would be the object?
In most other languages what follows the copula is the predicate nominative. Polish is quirky in that it uses the instrumental after "to be" and "to become". But the copula never takes a direct object (accusative). Only an active verb takes a direct object.
Syntax was never my strong side, but as far as I understand, it is not an object, it is an instrument. I may be wrong though.
It has nothing to do with the case of the noun in the predicate. It's just how it conjugates to the person of the subject.
If English declined nouns the way Polish did, then in the following sentence:
John hit the ball with the bat.
"the bat" would be in the instrumental case. It marks the tool, or instrument, used to achieve the action of the verb.
Now then, Polish is a little unusual in that it uses the instrumental after "to be" or "to become". Most other languages would have that in the nominative (subject form) because "to be" and "to become" are not transitive verbs nor are they even active verbs. They are stative verbs. They set up an equality or comparison between the subject and the predicate.