True,but Croatian is even farther apart,and i still think the vocabulary is easy to remember,more often than not you can find some sort of connection to help you memorise it,and even words that have no similar or equivalent counterpart in other Slavic languages feel more natural,that's just what i think.
In Russian it's pretty close,in Croatian it's ˝Muškarac˝,the writing system takes getting used to tho
When you INDICATE or PRESENT a person or an object, and it is obvious who or what it is, you use the Nominative case (dictionary entry):
She is a woman/She is a girl/It is a dog - To kobieta/To dziewczynka/To pies
she/woman/girl (subject) - to/kobieta/dziewczynka (subject of the sentence)
When you EXPLAIN or DEFINE the person, or object, you have to use another noun (or name) to do it, and you put that noun (name) in Instrumental case: (the noun in Nominative case becomes the noun object in Instrumental case):
She IS a woman/She IS a girl - (Ona) JEST kobietą/(Ona) JEST dziewczynką
A dog IS an animal - Pies JEST zwierzęciem
kobietą/ dziewczynką/ zwierzęciem (noun object of the sentence)
nouns have cases in Polish, similar to pronouns having cases in English: I/me, she/her, he/him, they/them, etc.
When a noun follows the verb być (conjugations jestem/jesteś/jest/jesteśmy/jesteście/są) , it takes the instrumental case. In this example the instrumental case of the nouns kobieta and dziewczynka are kobietą and dziewczynką, respectively.
Well, with "tardy," it doesn't change because it's an adjective. We're talking about noun cases. Kobieta and dziewczynka are nouns, and they stay in the nominative case in your sentence because they are the subject of the sentence.
Notice the difference in the usage of the nominative and instrumental cases in the sentences, "A boy is a boy," and "Boys are boys."
Jestem mężczyzną. Jesteś kobietą. Chłopiec jest chłopcem. Jesteśmy mężczyznami. Jesteście kobietami. Chłopcy są chłopcami.
And Macedonian too. Their nouns only decline to indefinite, definite proximal, definite distal, definite unspecified, and vocative (which is not taught here for Polish for some reason.)
Bulgarian nouns only decline to indefinite and definite sometimes subdivided subject and object, and vocative.
IT is a MAN (IT = man) ----------------- TO Mężczyzna (TO = Mężczyzna)
Subject = subject ----------------- Subject = subject [NOMINATIVE case]
He IS a man / He IS himself --- (On) JEST mężczyzną / (On) JEST sobą
Subject - noun/pronoun object - Subject - noun object [INSTRUMENTAL]
Install the Polish keyboard in Settings > System > Languages & Input. Different phones have different paths to the keyboard settings, but generally they go something like the above.
Also, if it's a standard keyboard on a non-Samsung Android phone, you should be able to hold down the comma (,) key and then click the little "gear" icon to get to Languages.
I am using "Polish Verbs & Essentials of Grammar" to go along with Duolingo. On page 18 there is a handy little table of case endings. I do not understand why the accusative ending of man (mężczyzna) in this exercise is -ą. According to that table shouldn't it be -em? Is the book incorrect?
Splitting this table into masculine/feminine/neuter was probably not the most fortunate choice. The inflection of masculine nouns is also determined by their ending. There is a small percentage of masculine nouns which end in -a and they inflect as if they were feminine. So, you will find the correct ending in the left column, even though mężczyzna is not a feminine noun, it just inflects like one.