"Ci ludzie to zwierzęta."
Translation:These people are animals.
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I always had a hard time with this until I realized si and ci are always ś and ć. I couldn't figure out how to explain the sounds like she. Eventually, I realized all I have to do is write something like this: sz'i (I have used this ONLY for explaining sounds and doesn't mean anything in Polish)
To add to Harm609702's explanation, the 'c' in 'ci' is a palatized sound (your tongue is touching your palate), whereas in 'cz' it is not; 'cz' is closer to the English 'ch'. The Polish letter ć and the combination 'ci' are somewhat similar to the sound "Atchoo!" imitating a sneeze in English.
No, it isn't. In Slavic languages 'to' and its variations is used to name objects, to categorize them, to define one noun through another noun. I'm not a linguist, so I can't neither tell you the definition of that nor give you any English equivalent, but imagine the situation when you point at something and say 'this is [name it]'. In Slavic languages it'll be either 'to jest' or just 'to ' -like construction. 'To' actually means 'this' (which for me as Ukrainian is kind of funny and confusing at the same time as in my language it means 'that', so I offten mix them when translating). Now, imagine that you just name the object instead of pointing at it. It's like you put the object into virtual category and point at it.
By the word "to". It's one of the two options possible in a sentence "X is Y", when both X and Y are noun phrases. The other would be "Ci ludzie są zwierzętami", but in this specific example that would actually sound to me like they are literally animals, not just metaphorically.
Yes, I mean ci and czy. Here the difference is way clearer, in audition lessons it wasn't so. Maybe I also tend to mix palatalized and normal 'ch' because in Russian they are always palatalized and in Ukrainian they are always not, so when bilingual locals talk, they may use them interchangeably, so I had no need to distinguish them before.
Maybe this would help
The rules for writing Ukrainian in Polish http://sjp.pwn.pl/zasady/318-Transliteracja-i-transkrypcja-wspolczesnego-alfabetu-ukrainskiego;629711.html
The rules for writing Russian in Polish http://sjp.pwn.pl/zasady/308-Transkrypcja-wspolczesnego-alfabetu-rosyjskiego;629697.html
Both can be used in an "X is Y" sentence.
"to" is kinda like saying "X = Y". Y takes Nominative in such a sentence. You can only use it if both X and Y are noun phrases.
"są" is the equivalent of "are" (3rd person plural). It's more descriptive. After "są", if Y is a noun phrase it takes Instrumental, and if it's just an adjective, it takes Nominative.
More info here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/16373167