'Ci' is for masculine personal plural, 'Te' is for non-masculine personal plural.
As 'ludzie' is plural for 'człowiek', which is a masculine noun, so here we must use 'Ci'
I think you understand but just to say it clearer....
'Ci' is for masculine personal plural, 'Te' is for all other forms of plurals. In the Nominative.
Did I understand it right that one should say "te psy" despite of the fact that "pies" is musculine?
Yes, that's right. Pies is masculine and animate (important for singular declension), but is not a person.
No idea. I reserve downvotes for people who make erroneous claims. E.g. "Hyenas" is a common formal address in English. I think this is what it should be for.
Not sure, but it looks like it's not the norm, as upvotes have overtaken the downvotes :)
How do you know? Do you get notifications for this? I never come back here so I wouldn't know otherwise
Something to keep in mind is that masculine animate nouns are always "softened" when they're plural. It might not make sense now, but "ci" is a softened form of "te." Likewise the adjectives get softened: zły -> źli, duży -> duzi.
Ok, this is good. Very good.
but one tiny point I don't get... how is duży -> duzi going from hard to soft? If anything, its going the opposite way. From the charts I've seen "z" is hard and "ż" is soft.
When an "i" follows a c, s, or z, it softens them. They become palatalized versions of "cz," "sz," and "ż." The same sounds (ci, si, zi) can be written as "ć," ś," or "ź" if they're not followed by a vowel.
Learn how to insult someone or recognize hate speeches. Life has different shades.
Of course. Looking at it scientifically, we are not vegetables or minerals.
A <c> before an <i> is pronounced in the same manner as <ć>. Otherwise it is generally pronounced as [ts]
Has there ever been an instance where ''ci'' is pronounced ''tsi'' in a word, like some kind of exception?
I also know "cito", although this one is a Latin loanword, a medical jargon of sorts.
I always had a hard time with this until I realized si and ci are always ś and ć. I couldn't figure out how to explain the sounds like she. Eventually, I realized all I have to do is write something like this: sz'i (I have used this ONLY for explaining sounds and doesn't mean anything in Polish)
there are a few exceptions
To add to Harm609702's explanation, the 'c' in 'ci' is a palatized sound (your tongue is touching your palate), whereas in 'cz' it is not; 'cz' is closer to the English 'ch'. The Polish letter ć and the combination 'ci' are somewhat similar to the sound "Atchoo!" imitating a sneeze in English.
Sounds like a useful phrase for "black friday shopping". Too bad there is no such thing in Poland.
No, but there are other dreadful situations sometimes taking place in polish supermarkets. Although, Poles would rather use "bydło"(literal meaning cattle but also: "(colloquial, offensive) rabble; uncultured or stupid people") in this context. ;)
I thought you had to let it be a guest in the bathtub for at least a couple of days?
Traditionally, yes. But it's so much hassle, not to mention not exactly humanitarian, that some people just buy a dead one.
I have never heard of that. Is it purely a tradition or is it still necessary to clean it out in this way if caught in the wild?
That's a Christmas tradition, but it's not about cleaning the fish. According to it, you should slaughter the fish just before preparing it. You would buy it on the market, carry it home in a bucket, and let it swim in the bathtub until it's time for slaughter.
"ci" is these.. sorry no one else answered you, im still learning too.
i thought you would be "cie" or "ciebie", whatever
But I thought ci was "you" also under the cases. . So i'm confused why it is now "these". When te means these. lol confused.
Both "ci" and "te" mean "these". But ci is used for masculine personal plural while te is used for all other gender variations
That's „Człowiek człowiekowi wilkiem”… Please don't ask me to explain the grammar. :P
I'm a little confused; can someone explain why one uses a demonstrative as opposed to a form of byc? should i think of 'to' in this translating to something like "such", which would make the english somewhat like "These people [are] such animals."
No, it isn't. In Slavic languages 'to' and its variations is used to name objects, to categorize them, to define one noun through another noun. I'm not a linguist, so I can't neither tell you the definition of that nor give you any English equivalent, but imagine the situation when you point at something and say 'this is [name it]'. In Slavic languages it'll be either 'to jest' or just 'to ' -like construction. 'To' actually means 'this' (which for me as Ukrainian is kind of funny and confusing at the same time as in my language it means 'that', so I offten mix them when translating). Now, imagine that you just name the object instead of pointing at it. It's like you put the object into virtual category and point at it.
Well, it's an opinion, quite a brutal one, I think it sounds the same in English.
By the word "to". It's one of the two options possible in a sentence "X is Y", when both X and Y are noun phrases. The other would be "Ci ludzie są zwierzętami", but in this specific example that would actually sound to me like they are literally animals, not just metaphorically.
Technically speaking though, „to” is not a verb at all. This is sentence with assumed „są” after „to”.
Can you yell this to your friend at a restaurant where there are a bunch of people behaving badly? That's all I need to know ;)
As Jellei said, you can, but as I already pointed out earlier in this thread, „Ale bydło!” would be a more natural choice then. ;)
Or maybe never even had it? Not sure, but while the word itself is from Proto-Slavic, it seems that it only has descendants in West Slavic languages and ended up in Ukrainian and Belarusian by borrowing from Polish(which given the history, is not surprising at all) – now, borrowing an expletive is more probable than a word for cattle, which, at least for peasants, had to be one that they used almost constantly since they learned to speak…
I don't know, I'm just guessing, because I can't find a good etymology information for the Ukrainian би́дло on the net. ;)
Yes, I mean ci and czy. Here the difference is way clearer, in audition lessons it wasn't so. Maybe I also tend to mix palatalized and normal 'ch' because in Russian they are always palatalized and in Ukrainian they are always not, so when bilingual locals talk, they may use them interchangeably, so I had no need to distinguish them before.
Maybe this would help
The rules for writing Ukrainian in Polish http://sjp.pwn.pl/zasady/318-Transliteracja-i-transkrypcja-wspolczesnego-alfabetu-ukrainskiego;629711.html
The rules for writing Russian in Polish http://sjp.pwn.pl/zasady/308-Transkrypcja-wspolczesnego-alfabetu-rosyjskiego;629697.html
Thank you, but it's rather useful when one wants to write their Ukrainian/Russian name in Polish than to understand the sound. For example, Polish 'c' doesn't actually sound as "ц" in the most of words, it's way closer to Russian 'ч' (maybe somewhere inbetween those two sounds) while 'cz' stands closer to Ukrainian 'ч'. Ukrainian and Russian "ц" actualy sounds as 'ts' or 'zz' in words 'pizza' or 'paparazzi', and it may be either palatalized or not.
why to instead so.coz" so" is are and to is "is ".sorry i don't have polish keyboard
If you use Windows, then just go into Settings, click Time and Language, then Region and Language, then Add a Language, and finally, select Polski! :)
Polski(programisty) is the one you want to choose, it uses American layout, with left Alt+letter for Polish letters.
On Mac, Polski Pro lets you use Option (alt) for the Polish letters. It is very nice and easy to set up.
It's either 'to' + Nominative (to zwierzęta), or 'są' + Instrumental (są zwierzętami).
But with this particular sentence, "są zwierzętami" would sound so... literal, that I wouldn't recommend it ;) Although normally the Instrumental option sounds better to me.
People are not beasts, if that is what you mean. We potentially have higher intellect, reasoning and moral faculties than the other animals, amongst other things.
I went with "czy" instead of "ci", partly because the audio sounded like a question.
How would you ask then : "Are people animals" ?
Thanks. You're the best! This one was a "write what you hear", and I'm sure I didn't pick up on the pronunciation difference between czy and ci.
That é is not Polish ;)
Don't worry, you will get to hear the pronunciation better.
Oh, didn't notice my mistake. I have to switch keyboards to get the polish letters. Tks.
Both can be used in an "X is Y" sentence.
"to" is kinda like saying "X = Y". Y takes Nominative in such a sentence. You can only use it if both X and Y are noun phrases.
"są" is the equivalent of "are" (3rd person plural). It's more descriptive. After "są", if Y is a noun phrase it takes Instrumental, and if it's just an adjective, it takes Nominative.
More info here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/16373167
Different notions of 'closeness' between the languages. Polish would use "ci/ci/tamci" and English would use "these/those/those". The middle options overlap. But the main translations are always the direct ones: "these=ci" and "those=tamci".