A whole lot of those words (silent g) end in -lig... and when you hear it, it sounds like the English -ly ending, e.g., carefully. Also, there are words (silent g) that end in -ig (e.g., modig, which means brave or courageous). Those ones sound like English words that end in -y, such as messy or rainy.
I hope this helps. :0)
When I was in school 40 years ago, in a classroom setting, people said "The bear..." to characterize "the animals that fit into the category named 'bear'...". In that sense the statement "The bear is a dangerous animal." would have referred to any bear, not a specific bear and the definite-ness was the category/species, not the animal. I don't think it is in common use today, though.