It's also worth noting that "pa" is an intimate expression. According to polish PWN dictionary it is "poufały okrzyk pożegnalny używany zwykle w stosunku do dzieci lub przez dzieci (często z odpowiednim gestem, kiwnięciem ręką); do widzenia". More neutral translation of "bye" is "cześć".
How do I read that "ę"? It's once pronounced as usual "e", now there's unwritten "n" after it, and an "a" with a tail is read as a nasal vowel at all.
It's mentioned in the tips and notes. ę is similar to "en" in English, and ą is similar to "om" in English.
It's a nasal "e", so you make the sound with your nose and mouth at the same time. Very common sound in Portuguese too.
That's what I thought. But where is the n coming from? It sounds like "jyenkee".
If the following sound causes a stop in air-flow, you'll get a consonant cluster that starts with the matching nasal sound: nk, ng, nt, nd, mp, mb, nc, ńć, ncz.
So, is the difference between dzięki and dzękuje the same as the difference between thanks and thank you (the latter being slightly more formal)? or is it something else?
Dzięki is something like Thanks, and Dziękuję is Thank you (kinder and more official).
Why is "Goodbye" not an acceptable translation for "pa"? Or is it probably just some randomly overlooked error? And yes, I have notified the team.
Is "pa" at all related to Russian 'Пока'? This, too, is a familiar expression which would be replaced by "до свидания" in more formal situations. I'm just curious because of what Piotr said above, and because they begin with a similar sound.
Also: so "cześć" can mean both "hello" and "goodbye"?
I don't know, maybe... "pa" is pretty colloquial, may sound childish. I think that пока may be more like "cześć".
Yes, it can easily be used for 'bye'. Like Italian "ciao", which can be said both at the beginning and the end of the conversation.