Just to clarify, Polish doesn't have a present progressive tense so the simple present can be translated as either the simple present or present progressive in English?
We don’t use present progressive in Polish. We can make it, e.g. „Dziewczynka jest jedząca jabłko”, it is understandable but it sounds strange, unnatural.
It is not grammatical. Polish has essentially one present tense, just like German does. In some cases you can emphasise the fact that the action is recurrent - Dziewczynka jada jabłka. This sentence cannot be translated using present continuous.
Does anyone have a tip for memorizing the spelling of "Dziewczynka"? It doesn't look anything like it sounds to me, more like just a random pile of letters. Should I focus on learning the alphabet and sounds more before I start on this DuoLingo course?
There are clusters of letters for specific sounds in Polish. I think, it would be beneficial to learn the pronunciation first, or use the link as a cheat sheet.
As a Ukrainian speaker, I'll try to break down the spelling, according to those rules.
dz – dz (like in kids, beads), however, in this word "dzi" sounds like "dź" ("dg" in "dodge"). Ć, ś, ź before vowels change to ci, si, zi, but the sound is the same.
e ‒ ee (please)
w – v (vine), but before "cz" it's more muffled and sounds like "f".
cz ‒ ch (chest)
y ‒ a specific sound, similar to the Russian "ы". Sounds close to the "i" sound in "big", but with greater tension.
Then it's just n, k, a – nka.
P.S.: any corrections are welcomed. Thank you!
When "dz" is followed by "i", it's pronounced like "dź" (like the English "j" in "jar").
To be more precise, there are these: 1. masculine: a) personal b) impersonal animate, c) inanimate, 2. feminine, 3. neuter - in singular and: 1. masculine personal, 2. not masculine personal - in plural.