There are clusters of letters for specific sounds in Polish. I think, it would be beneficial to learn the pronunciation first, or use the link as a cheat sheet.
As a Ukrainian speaker, I'll try to break down the spelling, according to those rules.
dz – dz (like in kids, beads), however, in this word "dzi" sounds like "dź" ("dg" in "dodge"). Ć, ś, ź before vowels change to ci, si, zi, but the sound is the same.
e ‒ ee (please)
w – v (vine), but before "cz" it's more muffled and sounds like "f".
cz ‒ ch (chest)
y ‒ a specific sound, similar to the Russian "ы". Sounds close to the "i" sound in "big", but with greater tension.
Then it's just n, k, a – nka.
P.S.: any corrections are welcomed. Thank you!
That gets pretty technical. I'm by no means an expert, but the research I've done says this:
The Polish "dź" and "dż" are both similar to the English "j," but neither is exactly like it.
More precisely, they have different palatization (how the tongue presses against the roof of the mouth). Part of this is in the difference between the alveolar ridge (the bump between your front gumline and the roof of your mouth) and the rest of the palate.
English "j" is palatized behind the alveolar ridge, with the middle of the tongue tending to dome up behind the point of contact. Polish "dź" is like that without the bunching up, leading to a somewhat softer sound. "Dż" is palatized behind the alveolar ridge, which I would describe as a "rounder" sound, a bit like what happens naturally in English with "George."
According to the "Tips and Tricks" section, Polish does not use articles. However, you must translate the articles back into English in order to get the answers correct. For example, this question translated literally is "Girl eats (or eating) apple". That would be grammatically incorrect in English, so you must add the articles back when translating.
In Polish there are no articles, so the sentence “dziewczynka je jabłko” means literally “the/a girl eats / is eating the/an apple”, when you translate it to English, you must choose the right ones, that depends on the context, if you don’t know the context, you can use whatever you want.
Although (for the benefit of non-native English speakers) English does not require (or allow) articles to make general statements in the plural. E.g. "Jabłka są smaczne" is "The apples are tasty" if it's talking about specific apples in context, but just "Apples are tasty" if it means apples in general.
No. Polish "z," in itself, is like English "z" (except it devoices to sound like "s" when it's in a cluster of other unvoiced consonants).
There is a j-like sound in ""Dziewczynka," though. What's going on there is that "dź" and "dż" have sounds similar to the English "j," and "dz" takes on the "dź" sound when it appears before the letter "i." We talk about it in excruciating detail elsewhere in this thread.