"Does he have a dog?"
Translation:У него есть собака?
Where does the "н" in "него" come from again? I read it somewhere before, but forgot. To me as a beginner "его" seems enough, but obviously I am wrong.
I was under the impression that "него" was used when saying "does not", and "его" when solely saying "does". Now i'm confused.
No you're wrong. Without "есть" this phrase looks incomplete. У него собака ... what?
You can say "Собака у него?" but this will mean "Is the dog at his house now?"
No, Russian doesn’t use the present tense. It’s the same like я женщина or он космонавт You can say у тебя есть but you don’t need to.
I would not use it without "есть" unless the subject of pets has already been introduced an we are going through the list animals that our acquaintances may have. In this case one would stress собака (I know that he has a pet, but I'm looking for a confirmation that it's a dog). Another context justifying dropping "есть" would be if you stress "У него" - that would be a question about the present location of a specific dog, with an element of surprise that he may have it. However, in this case you would need "the" in the English sentence: "Does he have the dog?"
No, it's not the same.
In the sentence "Я (есть) женщина", "есть" is a copula (linking verb) and it can be omitted in most cases.
In the sentence "У меня есть собака", "есть" is a full-fledged verb that expresses possession and it usually cannot be dropped.
У меня means ’I have’. Since Russian language does not have articles, you can drop it. Other examples: у тебя много денег, у Толстого (длинная) борода, у него тонкие длинные пальцы. I don’t say you have to, but you can ... it’s not incorrect
After some more exercises it seems that the pattern is: У (него/её) есть + infinitive of the noun.