"Dzień dobry i dobranoc."
Translation:Good afternoon and good night.
In Poland we are sort of more formal in everyday life expressions. You would say "cześć" (hello) only to persons you are already acknowledged with, and moreover, you both agreed to call one another by birth name, as we say, "you converted to say «thou*»" instead of «mister/madam» (przeszliście "na ty" - it is a sort of formal event). I say "dzień dobry" to almost all my neighbours I live door by door for last 20 years, with exception for those, with whom we "converted to say «thou»". This does not apply, however, to internet contacts - what sometimes leads to funny situations, when students say "sir" to their teacher at the university and call him by his birth name at some internet discussion board.
(*) Sorry for using «thou» instead of «you», but strict distinction of singular and plural form is absolutely necessary in Polish. Plural form addressed to somebody is considered paternalistic and therefore may be taken for discourteous (with rare exceptions). And if a verb in plural form is followed by someone's family name in singular form - it will be considered as intentionally highly derogative.
You say ,,Dzień dobry" in Polish, when you meet someone for the first
time, any time of the day, even at 6:00 PM (similarly to the "good day").
The equivalent of Polish greeting ,,Dzień dobry" is "Good morning", but it
only works up until the noon, 12:00 PM. After 12:00 PM, and before dark, "Good afternoon" is used, and a bit later, "Good evening" is used instead.
It's just like that, you need to memorize it...
In ancient times existed the form "życzę dobrego dnia" - "I wish (you) a good day". Then the verb "życzę" disappeared, and when only "dobrego dnia" was left, from Genitive Case it slowly became "dobry dzień" in Nominative Case. Afterwards, as there was no verb anymore, a more natural order is adjective + noun than noun +adjective. So, they switched places and became "dzień dobry". However, there are still people who prefer to say "dobrego dnia" than "dzień dobry". Especially in the morning, it may be also "miłego dnia" - "(I wish you) a nice day" , or "udanego dnia" - (I wish you) a fulfilling day".
With "dobranoc" there was a different process: two separete words "dobra noc" glued tigether, forming a new word "dobranoc", which did not change anymore.
[EDIT] I have checked in a dictionary with broadened explanations - and it was different. The ancient form was "Boże wam daj dobry dzień" (May The God give you a good day) and "Pan Bóg daj dobry wieczór" (May The Lord give you a good evening). But over time the appeals to The God had disappeared from both of them (at beginning of the XVII century), and the words in "dobry dzień" swiched places, while words in "dobry wieczór" glued together (into something that is neither noun, nor verb). The wishing form "I wish (you) a good day" is a later invention.
Yes, grammatically correct, but the fixed phrase is "dzień dobry". If I heard "dobry dzień" I would think you are either Ukrainian or Czech, then a second thought would be that you're playing with language... again, as with "dobra noc" - we're gonna keep to fixed phrases, after all we are discussing very basic phrases here and better not play with them.
In this expression there is a triphthong "dzi" (pronounced the same as diphtong "dź"). What you ask about is a diphtong "dz", whose pronounciation is different. There is also third similar diphtong "dż". You can try to hear the differences here:
- "dzień dobry" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dzie%C5%84_dobry
- "dziadek" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dziadek
- "dzidzia" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dzidzia
- "dźwięk" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dźwięk
- "dźgnąć" https://pl.forvo.com/word/d%C5%BAgn%C4%85%C4%87/
- "dźwig" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dźwig
- "dzwon" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dzwon
- "dzwonek" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dzwonek
- "dzban" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dzban
- "dzyndzel" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dzyndzel
- "dżungla" https://pl.forvo.com/word/d%C5%BCungla/
- "dżma" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dżuma
- "dżentelmen" https://pl.forvo.com/word/dżentelmen
- "dżdżysty" https://pl.forvo.com/word/d%C5%BCd%C5%BCysty/
See also here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_phonology
And I think that „difficult languages” aren't replaced because they are weak, but because the population that uses them lacks military, economical or rarely cultural power.
Examples: Latin, French (in 18th century France was the most populous country in Europe and the most powerful one). Nowadays it's happening to British English (everyone does transition to American English) or Portuguese (nowadays mainly Brazilian).
The expression "dobre rano" does not exist in Polish.
But even if anybody said something similar, it would be "dobry ranek", as "rano" is in most contexts that I can imagine an adverb of time (theoretically it is also a noun but it is nowadays used - rarely - only in structures that require Locative); while "ranek" is a regular noun.