What exactly do people mean by 'new food' in Polish?
In English, we normally use 'fresh food' for the opposite of 'stale food' and 'new food' for when a different type is invented/discovered... Of course there are the context based expressions as well. For example: "the dog ate my sandwich, can you make me a new sandwich?"
So how is 'new' used in Polish regarding foods (apples, sandwiches, lunches...)?
Nowa means it was recently made, for fresh you would want świeża.
The difference between nowa kanapka and świeża kanapka is that the former, while made recently, is not necessarily made of fresh products.
So it's practically exactly like in English.
It can be like in the sentence, that you wrote ('make me a new sandwich'). What also comes to my mind, is a new sandwich in our offer. More less like in English.
A 'new' sandwich would never occur in English. We would be more likely to say 'a fresh'sandwich. This would be true of most of the food mentioned in these exercises.
What would you call it if a place sold a variation they haven't sold before?
Very good point alik1989. I would probably opt for 'different' rather than 'new'. 'We have some different sandwiches today as well as the usual ones.' Having said that, ' We have some new sandwiches today as well as the old ones', would also work for me. What doesn't work is using 'old' when I mean 'fresh'. :) It can be the same tomato sandwiches but they have just been made. Any other native speakers agree or disagree?
"nowa kanapka" doesn't mean that it's fresh, just like "new sandwich" doesn't ;)
"fresh" is "świeża".
I would say that it depends on the context. If it's a snack bar where I buy sandwiches regularly, I might in indeed say "Look, they have a new sandwich!" Btw, I believe 'nowa' in the sense of 'fresh' doesn't work in Polish either. You would expect to hear the word 'świeża'.
Note to myself: I should probably refresh the page before I write a comment :)