See, good minds think alike :) I picked Spanish, German, Polish and Welsh as they are good representatives of some of the major sub families of the Indo-european language branch (Latin/ Romance, Germanic, Slavic and Celtc). I do one day want to learn French and Dutch as they are both close to English, but I wanna get the harder languages done first.
In Russian dad sounds like pápa (1st syllable stressed), whereas Ukrainians mostly call him táto. (Some people actually speak the mixed language so they use papa in Ukrainian, too). Actually knowing those two, I can easily understand simple phrases in Polish. Some words resemble Russian, others sound like Ukrainian, although the phonetics is totally different. What is fun for Polish people it's not easy to understand Russian or Ukrainian , because it's written in Cyrillic script, for it's not a problem, I know both scripts and some more than that))
It's „No, pa” and not quite, it would be something like „All right, bye” or „Well, bye then”.
Polish „no” is evil, it has many meanings and is 100% colloquial, so even dictionaries won't help you much – I would say it's even worse than German „Naja”(if by any chance you know what I'm talking about here), as it can work as 'OK', 'yes', 'no', 'I don't know', 'well', 'sure' and a few others too – context and prosody is very important here, so don't expect to fully 'get' „no” until something like C2 level of competence in Polish, I'm afraid. ;)
IMO, quite the contrary. It's not absolutely necessary word, but not that hard to understand, actually. No can have some meanings when it's alone, but when coupled with certain words, it's mostly used as an emphasis. You can have normal „pa” (bye), NO with a comma „no, pa” (okay, bye – no is a separate word), but also NO without a comma „no pa” (bye-bye then – no strenghtens the following pa).
There are many words that can be strenghtened with „no”. See the example:
„Nie” – "no (English one)"; „No nie” – "Oh, no, come on"
„Tak” – "yes"; „No tak” – "Oh yes, how I could not think of that"
„I” – "and"; „No i?” – "So (what?)"
„Wiem” – "I know"; „No wiem” – "I know that, I'm not stupid"
And so on :)
Yeah, and then you have:
– Kochasz Ewelinę?
I know what you mean, but consider all the things we use it for, when not used as an intensifier – it can have more meanings than the famous 'k-word' and as to how much it's dependant on prosody, consider that we can't even agree, whether it's the version with comma or not that ARiepsaame heard…
I concede that the use as an intensifier is easy to explain(you just did, in full I think), but I meant the whole total of the meaning(s) of „no”. ;)