"What is your answer?"
Translation:Jaka jest twoja odpowiedź?
The first question is one that was always very difficult for me to answer. br0d4 explained it like this:
"If the "What" stays on its own, without any noun phrase or a pronoun, like in "what is this?", "what do you want?", "what did you receive?", "what do you miss" - then Polish should use "co" or "czego" (depending on the case needed by the verb).
If there is some noun phrase or pronoun mentioned ("what colour do you like?", "what is your question?", "what people are they?", "what is it like being a soldier?") - in Polish it should be a form of "jaki" (or "jak" in the last example)."
This is still not a perfect explanation, but the best that we came up with, I guess. I personally like to call "jaki" and its forms an 'adjectival what', but that's also far from perfect.
By the way, as you took some Spanish, I believe that "jaki" can be compared to "cuál". Although "cuál" also incorporates "który" (which).
"Co jest twoją odpowiedzią?" does not sound good to me at all. I'm not sure if it even should be accepted. It sounds as if the answer was supposed to be something like "Moją odpowiedzią jest atak!" (My answer is an attack/to attack!) said by a general/politician/sports coach. And "odpowiedzią" is not Accusative, it's Instrumental. As you could see in this 'attack' example, it's actually not much different from a simple "X is Y" sentence.
Well, it depends on what device you use when learning Polish. On a computer, you can simply install the Polish keyboard (most people use "Polski programisty" - "Programmer's Polish"), and then to type diacritics you press either left ctrl+left alt and the 'basic letter', or right alt and the basic letter. Ź is under X, as Z already has Ż. If your main keyboard is English, you can just use Polish one instead, it has everything in the same places.
On a phone you can basically do the same (and then you hold a button longer and wait for a 'menu' to unfold), but I can recommend installing SwiftKey - you can have up to 5 languages on one keyboard, with all diacritics.
I understand. Just trying to get by bearings. If I hear a word with a "ć" sound at the end, like bądź, it just helps to know the word could be spelled with dź instead. Because then I try to pronounced words like twarz, ząb, też, and many others all wrong! Although I do admit, a voiced consonant seems to be more important/distinguishable than its unvoiced counterpart when it's at the beginning of a word, not the end.
That might be my least favourite question, because it is somehow very hard for me to explain it. But I have an explanation that was given to me by my colleague br0d4. Basically he says, that:
If "what" is 'standalone' in the English sentence, if there's no noun, then the translation is the appropriate case of "co". ("what is this?", "what do you want?", "what did you receive?", "what do you miss").
If there is a noun, however, then you ask about... the properties (?) of that noun, and the translation is the appropriate form of "jaki" or sometimes "jak". ("what colour do you like?", "what is your question?", "what people are they?", "what is it like being a soldier?")
Also, forms of "jaki" will be used if it makes sense in English to subsitute "what" with "what [kind/type/sort] of".
So no, "Co to twoja odpowiedź" is wrong. At best we could interpret it as: Co to "twoja odpowiedź", which could potentially be a question about the meaning of the noun phrase "twoja odpowiedź", but that's rather a dubious interpretation.
I guess we just have to learn the sentence as it is. If you asked the same in Hungarian, it would sound pretty much like "tell me your opinion about your own answer" to which one could say "oh my answer is excellent of course". But then in Romanian you ask "which is the difference" instead of "what is the difference" so... sometimes you just have to give up with looking for one to one matches.