Cześć, janeb2300. You wrote "word" in your question, so the answer will be a little broad.
In Polish, nouns, adjectives and verbs (only in past tense) have gender. I'll leave verbs apart, because it's very straightforward and it will take a while for us to find here in the course. Adjectives are also easier than nouns, because they are much more regular: feminine, singular, nominative adjectives end in "-a".
Feminine, singular, nominative nouns end in "-a", "-ś" or "-ść". For instance, "ryba" (fish), "wieś" (village) and "miłość" (love) are all feminine in Polish. Not every noun ending with "-a" is feminine though, as "mężczyzna" (man) and "poeta" (poet) are masculine.
Take these rules as a starting point, because nouns and adjectives change regarding gender, number and case. Not always you'll find them in their nominative, singular forms, right? ^^
Let me rephrase my comment, DalmoMendonca. Yes, "tamta" is a demonstrative pronoun, but it works syntactically and morphologically as an adjective. Access this site http://lebada.ddns.net:50023/polish/ or any other resource for polish and compare the endings of adjectives, nouns and pronouns (demonstrative, possessive, interrogative and so on). It would be to many tables for me to post here in one comment. I'll take a look at how to do it here at the forum in a tidy way. I'm sure it'll be fun comparing the tables though. You'll understand why we can consider "tamta" as an adjective.
Ok, I know this topic went cold. Still it is not clear to me why it is not "Lubię tamtę kawę" instead of "Lubię tamtą kawę". The link HelioLBS cited is not working right now, does any one have another reference? I just had a correct answer with the phrase: "Ona lubię tamtę zupę", isn't it the same?
Generally you should remember that "ten" (and its forms) translate to "this", and "tamten" (and its forms, including 'tamtą', which is feminine Accusative) translate to "that". These are direct translations.
Polish and English have different notions of... 'closeness'. Polish uses ten/ten/tamten, English uses this/that/that. So 'ten' and 'that' overlap, and they could be also translated this way. However, "tamtą" is already that far, that it really has to be translated as "that".
I learned "this" and "that" in simple way that seemed to work, to, ta, ten are short.. So in my head, closer. Tamta, tamto, tamten etc are longer words so further away. Like imagine pointing at "this" close to you and "that" further away. Just a weird thing that helped me (this is for original comment btw)
You guys have been extremely helpful as a community so thank you, I feel like I am slowly starting to understand the words and can essentially read Polish, now it is just spending more time understanding accusative vs instrumental vs vs vs...
How is 'tamtą' accusative in this sentence? I get that 'kawa' is the direct object as the sentence is directly about that particular thing, but 'tamtą'?
This is the only difference in declension between ten and tamten. The feminine singular accusative form of ten is tę.
"ta" = "tamta". Apart from the tę/tamtą difference, all other forms only differ by adding "tam-" to the "that" form.
Perhaps this will make it clearer: https://www.clozemaster.com/blog/polish-demonstrative-pronouns/
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Well... yes. "lubić" takes Accusative, Accusative form of the noun phrase "tamta kawa" is "tamtą kawę".
I'd really advise to use a keyboard with Polish characters. If your main keyboard is English/American, then Polish has everything that you need for English + everything that you need for Polish.
Yes, "kawę" is Accusative. Generally, you have to remember what verb and preposition takes which case... in an early stage of the course, until some moment, every verb takes Accusative apart from "być" (to be). Accusative is the most common case, needed by numerous verbs, including "lubić" (to like).