"Mówisz po angielsku."
Translation:You speak English.
Isn't it fascinating how "po angielsku" sounds/feels like speaking "the angels language" =),.. this word was my first impression about Polish and a very strong motivation to try it (besides, I lived in Poland when I was a child, but I was less than 3 years old and I can't rememvber any single word in Polish.. so I have actually been waiting for this course to become available for quite a while already =).
Well, the construction mówisz po anielsku would really mean you speak Angelic, of course if it was a language :)
Do you not need the word 'pan' or pani at the front of this phase? or does the verb conjunugation make it unnecessary?
you would say "Pan/pani mówi po angielsku". If you were talking to someone you adress as Pan/Pani. Here the person you are talking to is on the "ty" level with you, so You can say (ty) mówisz po angielsku, and you can skip ty (and probably should if not stressing it).
What does the "po" mean here? I see it used in many sentences eg "idę po chleb" where it must mean something else. Thanks
It means either the purpose or reason (why) you are doing something, or the way to do it (in what manner or how you do it), e.g.:
po chleb = in order to get some bread
po angielsku = in english (like in "written in english")
There may be more examples, these are just a few that came to my mind instantly.
My teacher told us that 'po Polsku' means literally "in the Polish style." It can be applied to food dishes for example or clothes. Gotuję kanapki po polsku. I do pancakes in the Polish way.
True. Only that "kanapki" aren't pancakes but sandwiches ;) "pancakes" are either "placki" or "naleśniki" (that's more like crêpes I guess).
Is this the same as asking someone if they speak English or just a statement that someone is speaking English? would you just say it with an upper inflection at the end to indicate that it is a question?
No, not the same. About second question, yes, it is. And you also can add "czy" to be clear.
(ask you, one person) "Mówisz po angielsku?" or "Czy mówisz po angielsku?"
(ask you, several people) "Mówicie po angielsku?" or "Czy mówicie po angielsku?"
If there was a question mark, yes.
But "czy" is very useful to make it clear that something is a yes/no question.
When do nouns get capitalized in Polish? Sometimes they are, and sometimes not, but I can't work out what the rules are.
angielski/angielsku... is not capitalised, because it's an adjective, not a noun.