"Do you have children?"
"macie dzieci?" [wy] - do you (plural) have children?
"masz dzieci?" [ty] - do you (singular) have children?
BTW, here is conjugation of to have in Polish:
ja mam [I]
ty masz [you]
on/ona/ono ma [he/she/it]
my mamy [we]
wy macie [you]
oni/one mają [they masculine/they not-masculine]
Thank you. Yes, I am learning Spanish also and Japanese (but more longer and not with Duolingo) and my native language is German, so it is sometimes a bit confusing to switch between the different languages frequently. And in case of Polish, I still first think in German and then I answer in English - German works also different than English. Sometimes I erroneously enter the correct answer in German instead of English ;-) But I began to learn Polish some days ago, I'll surely work through it :-)
Ja, das stimmt.
Yes, the formal way works similarly, by using 3rd person. So to adress a man formally, using the word 'mieć', it would be "pan ma". For a woman, "pani ma".
For plural, there are three options: "panowie mają" (men only), "panie mają" (women only), "państwo mają" (mixed or unknown, e.g. when you write an e-mail but don't know enough about who will read it).
It can. Or you can omit "ty". Or omit "czy". I don't know if I would call it "an official way", but at the beginning of learning Polish it's definitely good to use it, as it leaves no doubt that it's a Yes/No question. ("masz dzieci" without a question mark is a declarative sentence, after all)
Hmmm, something got wrong after yesterday I worked on Formal You skill and I tried creating another sentence meaning "Do you have children?"... Eh, why does English only use 'you' :/ Fixed now, the starred answers are again just "masz" and "macie".
"Państwo", as you will learn later, is the Formal You option for mixed gender. So when you formally adress a group of people which consists of both men and women. Or just a couple, actually.
Both sentences are correct, but only the first one is a translation of "Do you have children?" - the other says "Does X have children?" with X being some person that must be known from the context of the conversation. So if you want to ask "Do you have children, sir?" that's definitely "Czy ma pan dzieci?"
As far as I know, it should be 'Czy macie dzieci?' (Formal: 'Czy' is the question particle in Polish) or simply 'Macie dzieci?', because the question is also understood by the intonation (raising the voice at the end of the sentence).
You could add the personal pronoun, but take care of the word order: 'Czy wy macie dzieci?' Using personal pronouns is not common in Polish, they are already understood by the conjugation: 'macie' = 'they have', so you use personal pronouns only to emphazise.
Additionally 'children' is dzieci in Polish, not 'dziecki' I think you mixed the singular form dziecko with the plural form ;-)