"This is a tasty fish."
Translation:To jest smaczna ryba.
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"To" isn't modifying "ryba" in this sentence! It doesn't say "this fish" (though that could be implied). You're not picking this fish from among other fish, you're picking this thing from among other things (and saying that it's a tasty fish).
If you were to say "this thing" in Polish, it would be "ta rzecz," not because "ryba" is feminine, but because "rzecz" is. But as in English, you're allowed to use what linguists call a "zero mark" or "∅" here (i.e., leave out a normally expected noun).
Imagine for the sake of illustration that "∅" were a neuter Polish word meaning "thing." To agree with the gender of ∅, you'd say "to ∅ jest smaćna ryba."
Think of it the same way. The zero noun here happens to be formally neuter, so no matter the gender of the other thing the "jest" attaches to, you'll still say "to jest."
Actually it depends on the noun's gender. "to" can be either a dummy pronoun (like in "[This/That/It] is a tasty fish") and then it is used with absolutely any noun. But it can also be a neuter singular determiner (like in "this child" = "to dziecko").
So for neuter nouns, like "To smaczne zwierzę", it can be indeed ambiguous and it can means both "this tasty animal" and "this is a tasty animal".
For any other noun, using "to" definitely means "this/that/it is...", and you need to use another form as a determiner. For example "this tasty fish" is "ta smaczna ryba", as "ryba" is a feminine noun.
The sentence "This is a tasty fish" is not correct in English.
The noun "fish", like
the noun "meat", is uncountable, so the use of an article "a" is definitely wrong.
If it is tasty, it is a meal (countable), a dish (countable), a fish dish (countable),
or simply fish (uncountable)
This is tasty fish (meat)/ This is a tasty fish dish - To jest smaczna (mięso) ryba/
Ta ryba (mięso/danie) jest smaczna
The grammatical rigidity in translation of this sentence makes very little sense.
English speaker knows that "he eats fish" before he describes it as "tasty", so the phrase "This fish is tasty" means the same as "This is tasty fish" and is a perfect equivalent of both sentences "To jest smaczna ryba" and "Ta ryba jest smaczna".
This sentence, unfortunately, is not a good example for teaching Polish grammar.
Sure, let's accept completely different grammatical structures, that will help people learn Polish grammar. No, we won't ever consider "This fish is tasty" and "This is tasty fish" to mean the same. Come on, they have different subjects. That's like breaking rule number one of Duolingo translation.
I can agree that just "tasty fish" is a lot better and I changed the main translation, but you're still forgetting that fish are animals and saying "a tasty fish" about a specific, alive fish (animal) is not some complete nonsense. Sure, it's a lot less likely, but it's not wrong.